Skip to main content

Full text of "A season in egypt, 1887"

See other formats



•/'ft- 


* 

f. 



Folio 


DT7 3 
.A5P49 


I 





BY 


W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE, 

Author of “ Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh,” “ Tanis I and II,” “ Naukratis,” etc. 

































\> 























A SEASON IN EGYPT 


S o V\n'* 

Av . 
'* j u I 


ol 1922 * 

StofCAl &*'- 





BY 

y 

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE 


AUTHOR OF “ PYRAMIDS AND TEMPLES OF GIZEH,” “ TANIS I. AND II.,” 

“NAUKRATIS,” ETC. 


IL LUSTRA TE D. 


ft 0 It b 0 It 

FIELD & TUER, “ THE LEADENHALL PRESS,” E.C. 

TRUBNER & CO., 57 & 59 LUDGATE HILL, E.C. 


1888 


/V 




FIELD 6r* TUER, 

THE LEADENHALL PRESS, LONDON, E.C. (t. 4347). 















CONTENTS 


INTRODUCTION. 

I. CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE PRESENT WORK, 


2 . OUR NILE SAILORS, 1 

3. ON A NATIVE TROOPSHIP, .... 2 

4. ETHNOGRAPHIC WORK AT THEBES, ... 4 

5. TENT LIFE AT DAHSHUR, .... 4 

6. POLICE AFFAIRS, ..... 5 


CHAPTER I. 

The Rock Inscriptions of Assuan. 


7. NATURE AND POSITION OF THE INSCRIPTIONS, . 6 

8. COPYING, ...... ~ 

9. kings’ names in this volume, ... 7 

10. the title nebtper, ..... 8 

11. FEMALE RELATIONSHIP, . . . . .8 

12 . EXAMPLE OF INSCRIPTIONS, .... 9 

13. DETAILS OF THE COPIES, .... 9 

14. INSCRIPTIONS BY THE PHILAE ROAD, . . IO 

15. DO. DO. RIVER, . . .II 

16. DO. AT ASSUAN, . . . .12 

17. DO. AT ELEPHANTINE, . . .12 


CHAPTER II. 

The Rock Inscriptions below Assuan. 


18. inscriptions above silsileh, ... 14 

19. THE SABA RIGALEH VALLEY, . . . 14 . 

20. GRAFFITI NORTH OF SABA RIGALEH, . . .15 

21 . GRAFFITI SOUTH OF SABA RIGALEH, . . 1 6 

22 . GRAFFITI DOWN THE NILE, . . . . 16 

23. QUARRY MARKS, . • • • -17 


CHAPTER III. 

Some Historical Data. 


24. THE INSCRIPTIONS OF THE XITH DYNASTY, . . 1 7 

25. RECONSIDERATION OF THE XITH DYNASTY, . . 18 

26. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE XITH DYNASTY, . . 18 

27. THE VAGUE AND FIXED YEARS, . . . 19 

28. THE INSCRIPTION OF UNA, 19 

29. THE DATE OF KING PEPI, . . . .20 

30. THE INITIAL SOTHIS EPOCH, . . . .20 


CHAPTER IV. 

The Horus-name or Ka-name. 

31. SOURCE OF THE FORM OF THE TITLE, . . 21 

32. THIS TITLE THE NAME OF THE ka, . . .22 

33. FIGURES OF THE KING’S KA, . . . .22 


CHAPTER V. 

Funereal Cones, &c. 


34. nature of the cones, . . • • 2 3 

35. THEIR CLASSIFICATION, . . • 2 3 

36. TRANSLATIONS OF THE CONES, . . • 2 3 

37. INSCRIPTIONS PURCHASED, . . . 2 5 


CHAPTER VI. 

The Pyramids of Dahshur. 


38. positions of the pyramids, . . .26 

39. THE SOUTHERN PYRAMID, . . . 2 7 

40. TRIANGULATION AROUND IT, . . . 2 7 

41. FORM OF THE SOUTH PYRAMID, . . .28 

42. ANGLE OF THE CASING, . . • .29 

43. HEIGHT OF THE PYRAMID, 3 ° 

44. ENTRANCE AND PASSAGE, . . . - 3 ° 

45. SMALL PYRAMID, ..... 30 

46. THE PERIBOLOS WALL, . . . • 3 1 

47. DESIGN OF THESE PYRAMIDS, . . . • 3 1 


CHAPTER VII. 

The Earliest Column. 


48. THE TOMB OF KHUFU-KHAF, AND COLUMNS, . 32 

49. ORIGIN OF THE COLUMN, . . . .32 

50. OTHER EARLY COLUMNS, . . . -33 

51 . DESIGNS OF CAPITALS, . . . -33 


CHAPTER VIII. 

The Fayum Road 


52. DISCOVERY OF THE ROADS, . . . -33 

53. COURSE OF THE FAYUM ROAD, . . -33 

54. DISTANCES OF THE WAY MARKS, . . -34 

55. THE OASIS ROAD, ..... 35 

56. LEVELS IN THE DESERT, 35 


CHAPTER IX. 

The Weights of Memphis. 


57. CHARACTER OF THE WEIGHTS, . . .36 

58. ARRANGEMENT OF TABLES, . . . -37 

59. TABLES OF WEIGHTS, ..... 38 

60. NOTES ON THE KAT WEIGHTS, . . -41 

61. THE OTHER STANDARDS, . . . .41 

62. THE EGYPTIAN BALANCE, . . . .42 


PLATES. 


I-XIII. 

XIV-XIX. 

XX. 

XXI-XXIII. 

XXIV. 


ASSUAN INSCRIPTIONS. 

INSCRIPTIONS BELOW ASSUAN. 

THE HORUS-NAME OR KA-NAME. ' BALANCES. 
CONES AND INSCRIPTIONS. 

SOUTHERN PYRAMIDS OF DAHSHUR. 


XXV. 

XXVI. 
XXVII. 

XXVIII. 

XXIX-XXXII. 


THE EARLIEST COLUMN'; AND CAPITALS. 
THE FAYUM ROAD. 

DIAGRAM OF WEIGHTS. 

FORMS OF WEIGHTS. 

INDEX OF NAMES IN THE VOLUME. 


























Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2018 with funding from 
Princeton Theological Seminary Library 


https://archive.org/details/seasoninegypt18800petr 


INTRODUCTION. 


I. In rendering the present account of another 
season’s work in Egypt, it may be as well to say 
that this volume does not profess to contain the 
whole of the results. Much of my time was spent 
on procuring the ethnographical casts from the 
monuments; gmd these are only alluded to here, as 
they require a photographic process to render them 
effective, and such would have been too expensive 
for a general publication. They have accordingly 
been arranged separately, as we shall notice below. 

When last autumn, to my great regret, it seemed 
undesirable to co-operate further with the existing 
administration of the Egypt Exploration Fund, I 
found myself tied, by the acceptance of a small grant 
from the British Association, to undertake the work 
of ethnological casts in Upper Egypt. That grant, 
although sufficient for the mere cost of materials, left 
to my own charge nearly all the expense of travelling 
and residence for a season. I therefore considered 
what subjects I could best take up, to render my stay 
in Egypt of archaeological benefit. The general 
examination of out-of-the-way parts of the Nile cliffs 
was an affair that I had long wished for; the rock 
inscriptions of Assuan were awaiting a copyist; and 
the pyramids of Dahshur were a promising subject 
for an accurate survey. Such were the subjects that I 
accordingly selected to occupy a season in Egypt, 
in addition to the racial casts. That nothing here 
appears of the work in the rock tombs, is due to 
a partition of subjects which was agreed on between 
my friend Mr Griffith and myself. I had the great 
pleasure of his company up to Assuan, and the 
benefit of our both working on each place, sometimes 
separately, but more often each checking the other’s 
work, and consulting together. Thus it became im¬ 
possible to separate our respective copies; and as he 
had done more during the past season on tombs, 
while I had attended more to rock inscriptions, we 
agreed to divide the results, each taking in a share of 
the other’s work. Thus Mr Griffith will publish, in 
Journals and otherwise, the tomb inscriptions, includ¬ 
ing my copies; while here I have the advantage of 


using his work on the rock inscriptions, and his 
continual verification of my own copies. The 
individual responsibility is, however, duly noted to 
each inscription here. I should also acknowledge 
the many occasions on which Mr Griffith has given 
me most unreservedly the benefit of his reading and 
study. It is a true pleasure to be able to co-operate 
so freely with a student whose line of work is some¬ 
what different to my own, and whose knowledge is 
therefore all the more valuable in joint work. 

2. Passing Middle Egypt, we went to Minieh by 
train, and there sought for a boat. Happily we 
found there a small open boat, which had had a cabin 
built on to it that just sufficed to hold us ; this cabin 
was only 12 feet long, and as it was but 7 ft. wide at 
the most, with a cupboard taken out of it, there was 
scarce room for a bench on either side to sleep on, 
and a passage up the middle. A table was out of 
the question ; so hanging two loops of string over 
nails in the roof, a box lid was laid in the loops, and 
we had a swinging table. It kept up its character 
well for swinging, and if there was any wind we had 
continually to steady it, and save our plates. A 
vigorous carver would have made short work of it; 
but as we readily dissected our fowls in Arab fashion, 
the firmness of the dinner table was not so needful. 
We took up with us our old reises, Said and 
Muhammed el Gabri; the first looked after our 
property and did some cooking, the latter walked 
with us everywhere, a regular shes. Two boatmen 
and a boy made up our crew. The boy, little Abd 
el Minm, was the best of them ; possessing a remark¬ 
able freedom of speech, he used to make the boat 
lively in the evenings; his observations, generally 
amusing, and sometimes, I fear, scandalous, serving to 
keep the attention of the ship’s company. He was 
always ready for work, whatever it might be; if the 
rudder swung, or the mast creaked, in the night, a 
whisper would be heard outside, from the tent which 
hung over the outer deck for our men, “ Get up, oh ! 
Abd el Minm”; and with a little grunt, one soon 




3 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


heard the pat of his feet above on the top. One day 
Said having purchased a skinny fowl, the bird incon¬ 
siderately flopped overboard while waiting for the 
decapitating knife. As we were in mid-stream, the 
only thing to do was to put the boat about and sail 
after our fowl. By the time the clumsy craft was 
heading down stream, the fowl was out of sight. 
Anxiously I stood on the top rail of our cabin roof, 
telescope in hand, searching the watery waste for our 
dinner. At last, when despairing, I caught sight of it 
about half-a-mile down; a sort of start that would 
have taken full half-a-day to catch up with a 
light wind. Now was Abd el Minm’s opportunity; 
dropping his overall shirt, his little brown body 
plopped into the water, and swimming with splashing 
right and left stroke, which Arab boys love, he soon 
reached the shore. Running down for a mile or so, 
he then went in again, and intercepted the fowl. By 
that time it was drowned, and we watched him 
trotting back fowlless; so that misguided bird went 
down to the dark and Typhonic regions of the north, 
while we sailed with a favouring wind from Amenti\ 
up toward the blameless Ethiopians. 

The Nile boatmen are an interesting race, and it is 
as well to study their habits as soon as you get 
among them; for their want of cleanliness will lead 
the traveller to the invariable rule of anchoring 
always above their boats, as necessarily as he anchors 
above a town. Fortunately, the Nile is a big lot of 
water. One day I saw a curious form of divination, 
in a boat not far off; the boatman had some 
small object in a cloth, which he dashed to and 
fro between his hands, crying “ Wallah! Wallah! 
Wallah!” (By God); suddenly he flung the article 
into the stream from the cloth, saying " Will you go 
or come ? and anxiously watched which way it 
drifted. Seeing it pass outward into the river, he 
said. It goes ; and he had got his answer. It is 
strange how averse they are to stopping for the night 
at an islet or shoal in the stream; they always will 
lie up by the shore. Yet they are so afraid of 
thieves that they greatly object to put up anywhere 
but at a village; and if one boat ties up for the night 
in a lonely place, others are sure to stop if they come 
near it in the twilight, for the sake of safety in 
numbers. Putting this together, it shows that loneli¬ 
ness is what they dread more than actual thieves ; it 
is the “ afrit ” more than the “ bad people ” that they 
fear. An Egyptian is a very timid being; to go out 
at night, especially to any distance, is a terror to 
him ; the long and lonely road, and still more the 
dark shadows of trees or woods, will scare almost any 
native. One man I was told of who was very strong 


(in mind as well as body), and he liked to go about at 
night, and did not mind living a long way out of the 
village. One night he passed the body of a man 
who had been slain, lying by the road-side; the 
hyaenas were all round it, but hesitated to begin 
their feast, because the wind flapped the dead man’s 

mantle. Whenever I came in late—often alone_the 

mingled chidings and rejoicings of my men were 
worthy of any congregation of village crones. 
Practically, night is the safest time to go about, if 
you are not known to be taking a particular road, 
because every one is afraid to be out. 

3 . In six weeks we went from Minieh up to 
Assuan. There we pitched our tents in a bay far 
above the town, and lived for ten days, while wander¬ 
ing over all the neighbourhood up to Philae, copying 
inscriptions. Assuan in these times is one of the 
most curious mixtures to be met with. In one small 
compass is the rolling and swirling Nile, the bright 
crops, the utterly barren desert, with its piles of 
granite crags, the Maltese grog-shop, the Arab, the 
Nubian, and the wild desert Bedawin with their 
enormous heads of dressed hair, the officer who 
evidently thinks that the first duty of every human 
being is to learn English, the suave Italian dealer, 
ancient tablets of past ages standing mute witnesses 
on the granite rocks at every corner, and Tommy 
Atkins, his parades, his stores, and his bands pervad¬ 
ing the whole place. However, as it is a choice 
between having a slice of Woolwich at Assuan, or 
else a fresh invasion of the Blemmyes or a new 
Tirhaka, the traveller may be glad to take things as 
he finds them. On leaving, we heard that the first- 
class in the steamer was engaged some weeks in 
advance. The second-class was an insufferable cabin 
the air thick with tobacco and onions and dirt. So 
we elected to go third on deck, and very comfortable 
that way is to anyone with a proper roll of blankets. 
Only not when the Egyptian government are reliev¬ 
ing troops; there is always room by third-class in 
theory, but in practice it is rather hard to find room 
when sixty native soldiers have divided all the 
small deck space with military regularity amongst 
themselves and their baggage. The civilians who 
came on clumped themselves down in the narrow 
pathway left between the ranks. After seizing on 
a space while the soldiers were away, we had to 
fight morally—if not physically—to hold our own. 
We were told to go, but demanded to have a clear 
space somewhere else before we stirred. After some 
friction, and an unpleasant hour, they made the best 
of it, and let us have just space enough to lie on 




INTR on UCTION. 


3 


our edges; on the flat was impossible. My friend, 
however, had a man’s foot in his stomach most of 
the night. We all got on well together afterwards; 
and our next neighbour, one of the corporals, was a 
very good fellow. The sacred space allotted for the 
promenade of the first-class during the day was only 
intruded on by stealth; some of the men could not 
resist the sight of a clear deck and plenty of room 
just over the hand-rail barrier. Certainly, if the 
Egyptian Government fill up all the space with as 
many soldiers as they think can be stowed on the 
deck, and then take all the passengers they can get 
in addition, some stretching of the rules of accommo¬ 
dation ought to be allowed. The boats are not 
built to be choked in this way; and the apology for 
sanitary arrangements is scandalously inadequate. 
If the whole affair were proclaimed to be on par 
with a pilgrim boat, one would take it all as it 
came, rough and ready; but the first-class and its 
civilization hedges off the deck, and curiously inspects 
the herd which is penned up before it. Coming 
down from Luxor some weeks later, the same state 
of matters was still going on ; only this time I was 
settled into the midst of a cargo of convict soldiers, 
all undergoing sentence for some crimes. They 
were duly guarded day and night by sentries, and 
not one was allowed to leave the upper deck without 
a soldier behind him, bayonet in hand. This I 
thought tolerable company, squeezed together as we 
were ; but at one place a gang of civilian prisoners, all 
heavily ironed together by massive chains from neck 
to neck, were brought on, and settled down just on the 
top of myself and baggage; I had secured a piece of 
the pathway, and so my neighbourhood was a little 
clearer than elsewhere. After some clamour, we at 
last got our load of wretches shunted off into a 
corner. A gang of Egyptian prisoners looks strange 
at first; these were all utter villains, except one boy, 
—men whom I would never have employed under 
any circumstances, from their faces alone : each man 
walked on hugging with his chained hands his sack 
of provisions thrown over his shoulder, for they 
seemed to be required to provide all their own food. 
They had been seized for murders and robberies, 
and were on their way to trial at the Mudiriyeh. 
During the day there was just moving room to pick 
one’s way across the legs and among the bodies of 
all our cargo of scoundreldom ; and many a pleasant 
hour I spent, sitting on the barrier of respectability, 
talking to a friend who was, luckily for me, going 
down in the same boat, and luckily for him first- 
class, there being a lady in the question. When 
I returned to my faithful Muhammed, who was 


alone with me this time, I generally found him 
sitting rather disconsolately, with less room about 
him than when I had gone; it needs the presence of 
a living and acting personality to secure any space 
in such a crowd. But at night, when every man 
wants his six feet of deck, then comes the squeeze, 
and the early sleepers have the best of it. There is 
only a couple of thin iron bars around the deck, 
without any bulwarks, and the lower rail is more 
than a foot above the deck. Hence it is needful to 
lie end-on to the boat’s side, or else a roll would send 
a sleeper into the water. The paddle-boxes were 
coveted spaces, of course legally forbidden, and 
without any rail or barrier whatever around them, 
but yet rather clearer than the deck. Watching 
an opportunity, I saw a soldier get up one afternoon 
from his space on the box, and I instantly seized it, 
and spread my blankets, in token of a settler in 
occupation of his claim. My head was safe, for 
the box tapered away too narrow for anybody to get 
at that part; my legs were steadily intruded on 
until I asserted myself by a good thrust on that side; 
then some one on the other side gently insinuated 
his legs across my feet, and was gaining ground 
for a while, until, when his position was matured, 
a convulsion from below tossed his heels in the 
air, and he meekly withdrew. It was not the 
company that I objected to, but having too much 
of a good thing; individually, an Egyptian is a 
very pleasant fellow to travel with, conversable, 
kindly, and in short chummable. These soldiers 
had been seized as conscripts, probably marched 
off from their villages in chains, and then sent to 
garrison in Nubia for three years. At many a 
village and town that the steamer passed, a man 
would rise and stand looking out at every soul 
in sight, searching for some of his family, then 
call out his father’s and brothers’ names, in hopes 
that some of them might be in hearing. At one 
place a boy sighted his brother on board, and ran 
along the bank at full tear for a mile or two, 
shouting “Hasan! Hasan!” Happily we came to 
a stop near there, and Hasan’s brothers and sisters 
and parents all came down, and rejoiced and wept 
over him for ten minutes, until the whistle blew, 
and Hasan was once more lost to their sight. These 
poor folks do not know how to write, and even 
when they do send a letter it is often not received. 
The post office, though excellent when a European’s 
letters are in question, is but lax with Arab corre¬ 
spondence ; one man had written three or four letters 
from Assuan to his family at Dahshur, but none were 
ever received. When Muhammed was there with me 




4 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


he took a message for them, which was faithfully 
delivered. 

4- While at Thebes, I was out every day taking 
paper casts and photographs of the innumerable 
sculptures of foreign races on the monuments. The 
great battle scenes, the rows of captives, the lines of 
forts, all supply examples of the physiognomy of 
the various races with which the Egyptians came 
in contact. Until this year, no general collection 
of these had been made; and only drawings of 
some few heads and figures were available in 
England. My work then lay in securing good 
examples of every variety of type, especially 
searching for all bearing direct local names, or 
general race names. Of these I took paper 
squeezes, or impressions; the paper being beaten 
thoroughly on to the stone while wet, and left to 
dry on; after that it could be removed, with an 
impression which will bear any ordinary travelling 
without injury. To photograph most of these sub¬ 
jects successfully would have been a very long 
task, many of them being so high up on walls 
that a large scaffold would have been needed to 
bring a camera into position. However, by hang¬ 
ing a rope-ladder over the wall, weighted down 
at the top by Muhammed (enjoined not to move), 

I could scale up, holding the paper and brush in 
my teeth; and then, hanging on by an elbow, beat 
the paper on to the sculpture. Altogether, nearly 
two hundred sheets were done, including about two 
hundred and seventy heads. Also many painted 
subjects were photographed in the tombs. When 
near the outer air, the sunlight could be reflected 
in by sheets of tin-plate, and many photographs 
were thus taken. But in the depths of the large 
tombs it was necessary to use artificial light. This 
was obtained by mingling powdered magnesium with 
an equal weight of chlorate of potash, and then 
exploding the mixture. By calculation of the pro¬ 
portions of magnesium- and sun-light to candles, I 
reckoned that forty grains of the metal burnt at 
8 feet distance from the subject were needful to 
light it enough to photograph. This proportion 
gave excellent results with ordinary dry plates. 
Of course, at 4 feet (half the distance) only ten 
grains—a quarter of the quantity—is needed. Since 
my return to England, a German has published 
directions for taking instantaneous photographs by 
using sulphide of antimony with the magnesium, 
but this would foul the air too much in a close 
tomb: and an American has used a mixture of 
guncotton and magnesium; but the direct oxidation 


of the metal by chlorate of potash seems the simplest 
and best way to work with it in confined spaces, and 
the materials are non-explosive until they are mixed 
for use. 

On bringing the paper casts to England, the 
question arose how best to utilise them. First, I 
soaked them with wax; then I took plaster of Paris 
casts from them, forming about one hundred and 
fifty slabs of various sizes. These slabs will be 
presented by the British Association to the British 
Museum, after their exhibition at the South Ken¬ 
sington Museum, by the kind arrangement of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund. From the slabs, which 
were in relief like the original stone sculpture, I 
then took a series of photographic negatives; and 
prints of all these negatives, as well as those of the 
painted figures, can be had by any one who cares to 
pay a photographer for printing off copies. On 
applying to Mr Browning Hogg, 75 High Street, 
Bromley, Kent, he will forward a set of the photo¬ 
graphs ; if only a selection is needed, a set of loose 
prints, which can be taken from their sheets at 
2s. 3d. a dozen, will be sent; if a whole set of 
one hundred and ninety photographs is wanted, 
they will be sent pasted on sheets of parchment 
paper, with printed titles, in a cloth case, for 45s., 
post free. Also the British Association have agreed 
to supply copies of the report by myself giving the 
details of position of each subject, and a paper on 
the geographical identifications by my friend, the 
Rev. H. G. Tomkins; and these copies will be 
presented to any person ordering a whole set of the 
photographs, so far as they may be available. By 
these arrangements, I hope that this large ethno¬ 
graphical collection will be quite as useful to 
students as if it were published ; while any publica¬ 
tion by a mechanical process would entail so large 
an outlay, that it would be impossible to supply 
the prints at such a low rate of cost price as at 
present arranged. 

5. From Thebes I went down to Wasta; and 
crossing the river to Berimbal, walked with a 
baggage ass down the east shore to Helwan. This 
part was little known; but there is nothing to 
examine beyond a few small sites, and the town 
of Atfih, all of which are Roman or Arab, so far 
as they can be seen. Crossing over to Memphis, 

I settled at Dahshur, in order to survey the pyramids 
there. Though the village of Menshiyet Dahshur 
is nearer than any other to the pyramids, yet 
its distance, and the great stagnant pool of water 
by it, were objectionable. So I pitched my tent at 






INTRODUCTION. 


5 


the edge of the cultivated land, some half mile from 
the village, beneath a small grove of palms on a 
sandy rise, with several fairly good wells around it. 
The only trouble was the need of having guards, 
owing to the distance from the village. Happily I 
got two very quiet men, whom by many injunctions 
I restrained from talking at night; for when living 
in a tent, one is one’s own policeman, and the 
slightest whisper outside is enough to break a sound 
sleep. Those guards slept in an enviable manner; 
one night the mounted police came round, and 
angrily demanded why they were not awake ; the 
poor fellows could do nothing but stammer out 
“ yes, yes, yes,” to every question; and could barely 
find sense enough to give their names. They were 
in great dread of being fined, and begged me next 
day to write a letter to say that I preferred them to 
sleep. As their official beat, however, was about 
two miles long, I feared the excuse would not be 
thought worth much. Another night I was awoke 
by a whine, and leaning forward to my man 
Muhammed, who was also awake, he said that a 
hyaena had been smelling the guards’ feet, but 
thought they were alive, and so hesitated to begin 
on them. On Muhammed moving, he had slipped 
into the shadow of a palm, and stood whining at 
being disturbed from a prospect of supper. The 
guards were snoring quite steadily, when I just sent 
a shot over toward the beast to scare it off ; as the 
crack of the revolver died away, I heard the same 
snore continuing without the least break or change. 
Happy sleepers who can ignore such a sound just 
over their heads! 

6 . There was some need of guards in the place, as 
Dahshur is the terminus of the thieves’ road to the 
Fayum. Whenever cattle are lifted, either about 
Sakkara, or in the Fayum, they are driven along this 
road and sold at the other end. The first day that 
I was going about the pyramids I smelt a smell; and 
following my nose I came on some uncanny legs, off 
which the hyaenas had eaten the flesh, sticking out of 
a hollow behind some stones. I thought they looked 
suspicious ; so when I had Muhammed up there the 
next day I told him about them. He came to me, 
looking mysterious, and said it was a man; he was 
certain of it, for he felt his hair stand on end, and 
moreover there were the clothes about. Certainly, 
the leg bones did not agree with anything I knew of 
quadruped anatomy. So I sent word that evening to 
the shekh of the village. His terror was that the 
police should hear of it; he therefore sent up the 
guards to rebury the remains; but—as I afterwards 


heard—they elsewhere found a boy instead, reburied 
him, and thought it was all done. Finding the police 
were not told, I sent over to them, and had sundry 
visits of investigation from policemen and inspector; 
and finally a guard was appointed to watch the 
remains until a doctor could arrive. These unlucky 
guards were levied from the neighbouring villages, 
twelve in all, with four policemen ; they passed their 
time lying about at a corner of the pyramid, hearing 
the “afrits” of the murdered men by night, and 
baked by day in the barren desert; parties went 
down to water nearly two miles off in the valley, 
and returned to relieve the others in rotation, until 
the grand day when the doctor came. Then a full 
examination took place, and two bodies of men 
were overhauled and officially reported on. The 
boy, neither I nor they knew of at that time. 
While the police (unfortunately then horseless), were 
waiting about at the pyramid, a party of three 
thieves, driving five buffaloes over from the Fayum, 
ran right across them. A challenge followed, then 
an exchange of fourteen bullets, and then the thieves 
bolted. So that evening the policemen marched 
in triumph back to the village with the cattle. 

When I was first surveying about the pyramids, 
I used to see, about twice a day, men passing 
with horses or cattle; but after this stir with 
the police such travellers entirely ceased. The 
bottom of the affair was that these two men 
and a boy had been murdered in a blood feud; 
they having murdered the brother of another family 
of thieves, and their brother had shortly before 
been hung for murdering some one else. The 
matter was complicated by their having sundry 
business relations with the people of Menshiyet 
Dahshur; and when the mother of the murdered 
party came over with the police, she at once identi¬ 
fied pistol and pouch, which the shekh of the village 
guard was wearing, as having been her son’s. How 
he came by them had to be explained, but as he 
wore them openly on such an occasion, I believe 
in his innocence. When I left the place, the shekh 
of the village, the shekh of the guard, all villagers 
who had known anything of the parties, and all 
available relations of the parties, were still in lock¬ 
up at Gizeh. In Egypt, it is quite necessary to 
seize and lock up your witnesses as securely as the 
prisoners, in order to reduce the probabilities of 
their receiving bribes, and also to increase the 
opportunities of getting bribes out of them during 
detention. Every time a man is examined he makes 
things pleasant to the clerks, otherwise troublesome 
errors might appear in the record, and the police 





6 


A SEASON IN EG YET. 


record is omnipotent against a man. When once 
his name gets into the police office about any affair, 
as plaintiff, defendant, or witness, he is liable to 
squeezing for years to come. Whenever a police¬ 
man wants a dollar, he may perhaps call out the 
unlucky man, and tell him that he is wanted on 
such and such a case, but if he will pay U p, the 
policeman cannot find him. Of course he pays, for 
fear worse things should happen to him. While I 
was at Dahshur, a policeman went from Kafr el Ayat 
to Sakkara, where he had no authority; he then con¬ 
spired with a guard, and called out twelve men on a 
false charge, and drove them off some way toward 
Kafr el Ayat, and then intimated that a dollar a 
head a week’s wages there—would settle matters; 
so they found twelve dollars, which were sweetly 
divided between the policeman and the shekh of the 
guard. Luckily this case came to the ears of the 
European authorities, and I even heard that the 
money was to be refunded. Probably the examina¬ 
tion would cost the men more than their first loss. 
As the Arabs say, when one remarks “ Surely such 
an one does not take bakhshish ?”—“ Everything that 
has a mouth will feed.” Nothing but a long course 
of stringent and incorruptible control will ever put 
the country into order. A most quiet and inoffensive 
man, brother of my overseers, had annoyed a slave- 
dealer by refusing to let his house at Gizeh be used 
as a cover for the trade; the caravans of slaves 
usually descending from the desert near there, at 
Abu Roash. When the dealer was caught, he falsely 
accused my friend of being an accomplice, out of 
revenge. So the poor fellow was seized and im¬ 
prisoned for over two months, while his agriculture 
was neglected, and he paid about twenty pounds to 
various officials. At last the case came before an 
honest Bey,—a Turk most likely,—and he asked if 
the slaves had identified the accused. Some of the 
slaves were fetched; they at once identified the dealer, 
but said they had never seen my friend, nor another 
man who had been similarly treated with him. So 
the innocent got off at last, and live in dread of being 
levied on in future. No doubt the poor peasantry 
could appeal for justice to the European heads of 
departments, if they knew how. But how can a man 
obtain a fair hearing who cannot write, who dreads 
above all things stirring the resentment of the police, 
and who probably does not know whom to appeal to, 
or how to find, or reach, the ruling power? He needs' 
moreover, a course of education to believe that there 
is, at any stage of government, such a thing as honest 
justice to be found, though this is at last understood 
by those who live near the cities. 


A year ago I most reluctantly decided on giving 
up the work which I had been carrying on for three 
years before, and which seemed at the time to furnish 
my only opportunity of excavating in Egypt. Since 
then, to my surprise, private resources have been 
placed at my disposal for the cost of excavations, 
and I shall in the coming season be at work in 
the Fayum. I hope next autumn to have an account 
to give of the antiquities of that district. 


CHAPTER I. 

THE ROCK INSCRIPTIONS OF ASSUAN. 

7 - Amid and behind the houses of Assuan, rise the 
rounded granite rocks which have in past ages re¬ 
sisted the wear of the Nile torrent, when the stream 
was far stronger and higher than it ever is in these 
days. On their grey and brown polished faces, every 
visitor will have noticed figures and inscriptions; 
some carved with fine regularity, some hammered 
or bruised on the surface of the rock, so that they 
show more by their lighter colour than by any depth 
of cutting. These rock inscriptions are to be seen 
not only about the present town, but also in a bay to 
the south of it, on the rocks of Elephantine, and on 
dozens of blocks all along the road from Assuan to 
Philae, up the older bed of the Nile; they there reach 
a profusion as they near Philae, and culminate on the 
pile of vast towering masses of granite known as 
Konosso, on which nearly all available places have 
been occupied. Others are to be seen on the 
opposite island of Bigeh; some rude ones on the 
mainland east of Philae; and many are scattered on 
the rocks along the side of the Nile, between the 
three villages which lie south of Assuan. The cross 
valleys between the river and the road also contain 
several others, and many are known on the island of 
Sehel at the cataracts. 

The purport of these inscriptions is very various. 
There are several royal tablets, most of which have 
been published by Lepsius in the Denkmaler, and • 
therefore have not been recopied. Many are of 
private persons, dated in the reign of some king, or 
naming their offices under him. But the greater part 
of them, are funeral stelae, stating that an offering is 
made to some god or gods, generally those of the 
district—Khnum, Sati, and Anket—for the ka, or soul, 
of the deceased person, whose titles and family are 
usually stated. These inscriptions are thus exactly 
the same as the funeral stelae found in tombs else- 









THE ROCK INSCRIPTIONS OF ASSUAN 


7 


where; as it was impossible to excavate tombs in 
the granite rocks, the interments must have been 
generally in the sand, and the stela, in place of being 
in a tomb, was cut on the rocks. Other inscriptions, 
which merely state the name and titles of some 
official, were probably cut by travellers while waiting 
in the neighbourhood for their boat to pass the 
cataracts, though not one actually refers to the 
passage of the cataracts. These brief mentions are 
very rough in general, and abound on the rock at the 
east side of the lower end of the rapids, just where 
voyagers would disembark. 

The positions of the inscriptions are various. 
Some are on the granite faces which dip straight 
down into deep water, and are below the present 
level of high Nile; generally they are at the level of 
the roads by which they stand, or raised somewhat 
on prominent faces of rock. Effective display has 
been sought for in most cases ; the corner of some 
road, or an unusually large block of stone, or a wide 
flat face, well exposed, have generally been occupied. 
In some cases, as the scene No. 109 and others, by 
Amenemapt, the highest faces on the cliffs have been 
used, about 100 feet above the road beneath, and 
several tablets cannot have been cut without ladders 
or scaffolding. Prominence was not, however, always 
wished for; and one very beautifully deep-cut in¬ 
scription, No. 86, is on the flat side of a huge block 
facing to the cliff, and not to be seen without 
climbing up some distance over the piled masses, so 
as to reach its level. 

In the time of the Empire, the courtiers of the 
XVIIIth dynasty were not too scrupulous as to the 
positions they seized on; and just south of Assuan, 
on the road to the Cufic cemetery, are many early 
tablets, the engraving of which has been cleared out, 
and fresh inscriptions cut on the stolen sites (No. 274, 
&c.). In all earlier times, however, a strict regard 
seems to have been shown to older inscriptions. It 
is seldom that the face of the rock has been specially 
dressed down, either in a bordered square or other¬ 
wise ; usually the smooth worn face, or a flat cleavage 
face of the granite was selected, and the inscription 
cut on it. Thus the natural wearing of dark brown, 
or the shiny pitchy black where exposed to the Nile, 
served to throw up the light bruised surfaces of the 
cutting, so that no more than a mere hammering on 
the surface, and stunning of the crystals, sufficed for 
distinction in some cases. Some inscriptions, indeed, 
are so slightly and roughly marked, that it needs an 
examination of the granite crystal, by crystal, to trace 
the course of the bruised lines. In a few cases there 
are remains of red or of yellow paint on the figures; 


but if painting had been general, more would have 
been visible now under the very minute examination 
of the cracked surfaces that has been continually 
made in the course of copying the inscriptions. 

8. In the accompanying plates all the inscriptions 
not hitherto published are here given. As they 
were copied partly by Mr Griffith, and partly by 
myself, the copyist’s initial, G. or P., is placed at 
the foot of each ; and where a copy has been checked 
by a second reader, the checker’s initial follows the 
copyist’s. Where a photograph has been used, the 
letter <p follows the copyist’s; and in a few cases 
where an inscription is given in the Denkmdler , the 
variations between that copy and this are noted. 
The order of the copies here is geographical from 
South to North, without an exact distinction however 
between those in the same group, though generally 
they follow in nearly their order on the ground. 
The positions of Mr Griffith’s originals not being 
connected with those of mine, his copies are placed 
in a group 131 to 154, which is parallel with my 
group 68 to 130; and some additional copies of 
his appear as an addendum to the general order, 
Nos. 332 to 356. The quickest and most satisfactory 
way of working was by my making the copies, 
and Mr Griffith checking them, and this plan was 
followed as far as we could. Besides the 338 
inscriptions here from Assuan to Philae, there are 
about two dozen in the Denkmdler; these will be 
found in Band IV. 118 (Usertesen I) ; 123 (3); 144; 
150 b. c. (Mentuhotep); 151, e. f. h. (Noferhotep) ; V. 
16 (Tahutmes I); 69 (Tahutmes IV); 81 (2), and 
82 (3), Amenhotep III.); VII. 202 (Merenptah): and 
VIII. 274 (Psamtik, Haabra, and Aahmes). About 
60 in all have been hitherto published by Lepsius, 
Champollion, Mariette, &c.; all of these bear kings’ 
names, and scarcely any of them have been re¬ 
published here. 

9. Several tablets with kings’ names, however, 
have been hitherto unnoticed, and these are given in 
full; the following being the list of kings’ names 
occurring in these inscriptions, including those lower 
down at Silsileh and Thebes, and the cones and 
other monuments on PL xxi.-xxiii. 

Nefer-kha-ra, No. 309. 

Unas, No. 312. 

Pepi I., Nos. 309, S39, 630. 

Rameren (year 4), Nos. 81; 338. 

Pepi II., No. 311. 

Antef, No. 489. 

Antefa, No. 310. 




8 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


Mentuhotep Ra-neb-kher (year 41) Nos. 213 and 
243 J 394 , 443 , 489. 
b-ankh-ka-ra, Nos. 359, 466. 

Amenemhat I., Nos. 67, 308. 

Usertesen I. (y.i) 271 • ( y . 4 i) 9I; Nos. 113, 273. 

Usertesen III. (y.6) 262; (y.i 2 ) 340. 3 

Amenemhat HI. (y.14) 151; (y.15) 84, 153; (y.24) 
. 98 ; (y.2 5 ) 154. 

Amenemhat IV. (y. 3 ) 444; No. 703.? 

Neferhotep, Nos. 337, 479 . 

Sebekemsaf, Nos. 385, xxi. 2. 

Karnes, PI. xxi. 1. 

Ti-aa-aa, PI. xxi. 1. 


Amenhotep I., Nos. 476, 480. 

Tahutmes I., Nos. 476, xxi. 1, cone 14. 

Tahutmes II., No. 476. 

Hatasu, Nos. 357, xxi. 3. 

Tahutmes III., No. 357, cone 39. 

Amenhotep II., cone 6. 

Amenhotep III., Nos. 274, 334, 490,? cone 84. 
khunaten, PI. xxi. 7. 

Seti I., Nos. 109, 130. 

Ramessu II., Nos. 146, 275, 662, 664, 684. 
Merenptah I., No. 70. 

Seti II., Nos. 665, 666, 673, 691. 

Siptah, No. 278. 

Ramessu III., Nos. 650, 652, 659, 661, 663, 68r, 
cone 107. 

Sheshank III, cone 56. 

Kashta, No. 263. 

Amenardus, Nos. 263, xxi. 8. 

Nekau, PI. xxi. 5. 

Haa-ab-ra, No. 321. 

Aahmes II., No. 302. 

Amenrut, PI. xxi. 11. 


The unknown cartouche Hotep, 430; and the 
unknown ka name Uaj, 414. Only about half 
a dozen of these have been published before, so 
far as I am aware. 


IO. From the large number of relationships re¬ 
corded in these family groups, we may ascertain 
the force of a very well known feminine title Neb-t 
P er > or “ mistress of the house.” It has been 
supposed to be a synonym for wife, as endowed 
with her husband’s property; but from inscriptions 
No. 114, we see that Thi was both nebt per and hemt 
—which is the regular title for wife: and in No. 
159 we see the same condition of Nait: further, 
as we always find the wife called hemt-f “ his wife,” 

though we never find nebt per-f “his _?”, it 

seems clear that this can neither be a synonym 
for a wife, nor yet a secondary wife or concubine. 
It is certainly a title of some respect, as it is 
continually used, and its meaning shows a position 
of authority. If it signified an heiress, in default of 
sons, it could not be so common as we find it 
to have been; and moreover, we see in No. 145 
that the nebt per Hennut was not an only child, 
and another such case is in No. 289. Being then 
neither heiress nor secondary wife, and yet an 


additional title to some wives, we are reduced to 
examine the one other position, that of widow. 
Now deceased persons are usually — though not 
always — entitled makheru, as having the “ true 
voice,” or intonation in the other world, to recite 
the defensive formulae for repelling evil spirits, 
according to Professor Maspero’s neat explanation 
of the phrase. If then the nebt per were a widow, 
her husband, whenever his name is given, should be 
described as makheru. Is this so? There are six 
cases in these inscriptions, where a husband of a 
nebt per is named, Nos. 19, 82, 87 (Henutsenu) 114, 
r 59 (Nait), and 244 j and in five of these the 
husband is deceased; the only case where he is 
not stated to be so is No. 19, where he was probably 
dead, as there are five grandchildren named; and 
moreover, the makheru title is not applied to any 
one in that inscription. This test therefore fully 
bears out the conclusion. But one other test 
remains : in any past generation there will be about 
as many widows as widowers, i.e., wives must have 
half of them died widows; half, or rather more than 
half, of the women should therefore appear as nebt 
per, though, as that title is in many genealogies 
rarely given, we cannot expect a full half. As it is, 
there are (in inscriptions where nebt per is used), 80 
mothers without the title, against 52 called nebt 
per, which is as close a balance as we can expect. 

The only explanation therefore of this title nebt 
per that appears possible, is that it means widow, or 
“mistress of the house” after her husband’s death; 
and this is fully confirmed by the two tests (1) 
of the husband being called makheru, and (2) of 
the equality of numbers to that of the wives. 
Probably, where a son or daughter took possession 
of the house and estates on his father’s death, the 
widow might not have this title; and this would 
account, as well as the mere omission of it in the 
lists, for the title occurring to four-tenths instead 
of half of the mothers named. 

11. An important point, which is very prominent 
in all of these families, is that relationship was 
reckoned on the mother’s, and not on the father’s 
side. In every case of stating the descent of a 
person, throughout the whole of these inscriptions 
(and I might add the tombs and funeral stelae 
in most cases), it is the mother who is stated; 
the father rarely appears, unless he is separately 
commemorated. The parental identification of a 
man was by his mother’s name. This might be 
thought to be only a surer identification, as a man 
often had children by different wives {eg., four 






THE ROCK INSCRIPTIONS OF ASSUAN. 


9 


mothers of one set of brethren being named in 
No. 270), whereas re-marriage of a widow is not 
known so far. But it was much more than this; 
the father was ignored; so long as he lived, and 
filled offices, he was important, but on his death 
he became nobody, and was not reckoned as a 
link in the family. For instance, in inscriptions 
Nos. 86, 87, and 114, all of one family, the mother 
is commemorated and repeatedly named, the father 
is never mentioned ; the mother’s mother is named 
also. In Nos. 267-8 there is not a single husband 
mentioned among over twenty wives, only a few 
unmarried sons appearing. Again, in No. 270, the 
four mothers of a set of brethren are named, the 
father being but once mentioned, and then not as 
any bond of union to the whole. It is the same in 
the tombs at El Kab; there interminable relations 
cover the walls in rows, the tombs seeming to be 
a sort of joint-commemoration of a whole family 
and their friends, for their benefit in the future 
world; possibly a pious duty of the head of a 
house; possibly a memorial got up by joint-sub¬ 
scription. But in these tombs the relations are all 
on the female side, except the very nearest. Paheri, 
for instance, has his father, wife’s father, brothers, 
and sons, but no further male relations; whereas 
his first cousins in the female line, “ daughters of the 
sister of the mother of his mother,” are given at 
length. And we see from other cases that this 
was no mere accident of relationships. Matriarchy 
was in great force in Egypt, the husband in many 
contracts even gave his wife everything he possessed; 
and it seems highly probable that though offices 
might descend from father to son, property would 
go in the line in which relationship was reckoned 
and commemorated; so that a widow was, by her 
rights, mistress of the house, or nebt per. De Rouge 
has shown reasons for believing that Khufu married 
a daughter of Seneferu, and succeeded to the throne 
instead of any of the sons of Seneferu; Khafra 
similarly married a daughter of Khufu, and succeeded 
in place of any of the sons of Khufu ; and Menkaura 
is not among the sons of Khafra. Here we see that 
the throne descended in the female line; and the 
long list of priestesses of Amen at Thebes, an office 
which also went in the female line, shows this same 
course of inheritance. It seems highly probable 
that, down to the latest times, the only legitimate 
succession was in the female line; and the sons 
of kings could only rule legally by the system 
of sister-marriages, which was begun in the Xllth 
dynasty, and fully carried out in the XVIIIth and 
later dynasties. The Egyptian system of the descent 


of property in the female line thus tended to increase 
the energy and ability of a family; while the 
modern system of male descent rather increases 
its mere beauty. Perhaps the Egyptians were the 
wiser. 

% 

12. As an illustration of the reading of these 
inscriptions, for those who are not already familiar with 
them, we may take No. 159. “A royal offering 
presented to Sati, Khnum, Anket, and the gods who 
are in Ta-kens (the land of the bow, or Nubia); 
giving to them services, bread, wine, beeves, and 
fowls, and all things that are good and living 
amongst the gods, for the ka (soul) of the chief of 
the south thirty (a district of the frontier—perhaps 
the Dodekaschoinos of later times), Amenemhat, 
true-voiced (makheru ); born of the widow ( nebt-per) 
Thenasit, true-voiced ; and for the son of his brother 
Amendudu, true-voiced; and for his wife, his be¬ 
loved, the widow Nait, true-voiced ; and his daughter 
Senb-tesi; and his daughter Annutpu.” The pre¬ 
cise significance of many of the formulae continually 
met with is still more or less uncertain; but this 
example will, at least, show how such inscriptions 
run. The constant opening, “a royal offering,” has 
been very happily explained by Professor Maspero; 
his view being that the king was the only inter¬ 
mediary between his subjects and the gods; he 
alone could offer acceptably to the gods; and what¬ 
ever was offered could only be done in his name, as 
being done for him : thus every offering was a “ royal 
offering.” 

13. Turning now to some details of the inscrip¬ 
tions, it should be noted that, in most cases, they 
are copies and not transliterations; that is to say, 
the style and character of the original is preserved 
as nearly as may be in a hand copy. Where they 
are very rude, as in Nos. 1 to 18, each line is repro¬ 
duced as exactly as can be readily done ; where they 
are in better style, as in Nos. 19-22, the forms of 
the signs have been duly observed, the number of 
waves in n, the number of strokes on men, and such 
details, have been in nearly all cases copied. These 
details are of considerable value in educating the eye 
in styles of various periods, but they are generally 
ignored by copyists; even in the ostentatiously 
pictorial plates of the Denkmaler, a seemingly pre¬ 
cise copy will differ altogether from its original in 
the forms of the signs. From this carelessness has 
arisen a neglect and indifference to the historic 
variation of such details, which is a hindrance to 
any Egyptologist who works from books and not 

B 



10 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


from the originals. A copy should be a true copy, 
and not a transcription into a style of a wholly 
different period ; and if any signs are unintelligible 
they should not be altered, but an explanatory form 
added as a note. Such of the copies in this volume 
as are mere transcripts are distinguished by being 
drawn in open outline, as Nos. 25 to 30; though in 
these any remarkable forms are observed. 

The hieratic forms often found in these rock in¬ 
scriptions are of considerable interest. They show 
the free use of hieratic for common purposes at the 
early date of the Xlth and Xllth dynasties. More¬ 
over, they are in many cases more difficult to form 
on the stone surface than their hieroglyphic equiva¬ 
lents, being adaptations for writing upon papyrus 
and not for cutting on stone, curved rather than 
straight lines; and yet as they were used in pre¬ 
ference, it shows that they were far more familiar 
to the users than the hieroglyphics, which were 
certainly very commonly known. They form, there¬ 
fore, a distinct evidence of the common use of hieratic 
writing on papyrus in the middle kingdom; an evi¬ 
dence quite in accord with that of the tomb paintings 
in which clerks are so often to be seen. The date 
at which the various forms of hieratic signs were in 
use is of great interest, as bearing on the question 
of the early hieratic papyri being original or of later 
copying. Here we have a large quantity of hieratic, 
in various stages of decadence from the hieroglyphic, 
and mostly capable of being approximately dated 
by the names found. For instance, the Antef and 
Mentuhotep names, which are so frequent, are pro¬ 
bably all before the Xllth dynasty, as in that 
age a fresh style came in of Amenemhats and 
Usertesens, and all their compounds. The Sebak 
names are unusual before the XHIth dynasty, and 
very rare before the Xllth. All of these scarcely 
survived into the Empire, and with them perished 
the sweet early names of primitive times, Apa, 
Beba, Teta, and such simplicities. By these data 
of the names the various periods of the forms of 
characters may be ascertained within the time of 
one dynasty and one change of fashion. 

14. We will now make notes on a few points in 
the plates in their order. The inscriptions 1 to 18, 
which are on the east or further side of the plain 
opposite Philae, seem to be all of the Xlth dynasty, 
except, perhaps, the last. Konosso is the high pile 
of rocks, around two enormous twin masses which 
tower up on the eastern side of the Nile, where it 
makes a bend around Philae; they are thus on the 
north of Philae. Though called an island, they 


are joined to the mainland, except at high Nile; 
forming part of the eastern shore from January 
onwards each year. It is needful to note this, as 
in Murray’s Guide the position is wrongly stated. 
Some of the inscriptions of Konosso are the largest 
and most striking of all; many of them, however, 
belong to the Empire, the most conspicuous being 
the large dressed faces of the tablets of the XVIIIth 
dynasty. High above every other is a square con¬ 
taining the cartouches of Psamtik II. A frequent 
title in the earlier inscriptions is “ chief of the 
interior of the treasury” (v . 20, 22. 29, 33, 34A, 46, 
55 )> probably a local title in the principal temple. 
Another title of less important persons, and probably 
later, is that of “scribe of the youths,” perhaps of 
the recruits (v. 30, 35); while a “youth of the land,” 
or son of his, country, is shown on 41 (Amenemheb- 
jedaf), 42 (Hui), and 43, and these may well be the 
cadets in the charge of the scribe. 

At Bigeh most of the inscriptions have been pub¬ 
lished ; but a few fresh ones are given here, 56-9, 
334-6. Bigeh, or Biggeh, is the large island on the 
west side of Philae; the inscriptions seem to be 
limited to the rocks on its south-east part above 
the temple; around the rest of the island, including 
the whole of the northern half, which is almost 
separate, I did not find a single letter. There is a 
slight mound of a village with late Roman pottery 
in the gap between the two halves. 

The greater part of the inscriptions lie along the 
road from Philae to Assuan, which in its southern 
part branches into different valleys. The inscrip¬ 
tions are of nearly all periods, from the Vlth to 
the XIXth dynasty, though mostly of the Xllth. 
Some, such as No. 79, are very rudely hammered; 
while others, as 86, are of fine monumental cutting. 
One of the most complete family records is that 
in the three fine inscriptions, 86, 87, and 114; on 
drawing this out we have five generations recorded : 
Beba the grandmother, Tetauat the mother, her 
five sons Usertesen-ankh-sneferu, Usertesen-senb- 
penti-n, Iusenb, Amenisenb, and Senb-f. The first 
married Henutsenu, and had a son Res-senb, and 
daughter Amensit, who had a son Nebui. The 
second married Thi, sister of Ameni, whose mother 
was Henutpu, and had seven children, Seneferu, 
Amensi, Teta-uat, Teta-ankhtha, Henutapu,. Teta- 
senbet, and Nehia. Besides these nine other persons 
are named whose relationship to the family is not 
shown. 

Several peculiarities may be noted among the 
hieroglyphics. Ra appears with the serpent attached 
to the disc, as in Nos. 76 and 152. N is generally 



THE ROCK INSCRIPTIONS OF ASSUAN. 


reduced to three waves, sometimes to only two, as 
in No. 80; the great number of small waves being 
a late type of the empire, while in the middle and 
old kingdoms four or five is the usual number on 
the Assuan rocks, and six or seven is frequent on 
Memphite carvings. What appears at first like a 
decorated form of the disc kh (as in Nos. 80 and 
270, after ankh ), is really the usual town sign, in a 
group which is not merely ankh but ankh-n-nu , 
“living in the town,” or “citizen.” It appears full 
length in No. 99. Among other titles appears itartu 
(76, first line), which has been rendered “foot-soldier” 
or “ courier ” ; but in this place it seems to belong 
to such a high official (Rasehotepabsenb being 
governor of the town according to his next title), 
that it rather seems equivalent to king’s messenger 
or gentleman usher. Another title, mer shent , is 
supposed to be equivalent to master of the rolls, 
literally, perhaps also actually; it appears in Nos. 
85, 165, 166, 168. Apparently a variant is her shen 
in No. 167. A curious variant of Sati, with the 
bone in place of the transfixed skin, is seen in No. 
89. The title “master of the boats” occurs in No. 
97, and its repetition No. 134, also in 147. A re¬ 
markable form of sat is given in No. 133, compared 
with 89. 

On reaching the southern part of the long straight 
valley which leads from Assuan toward Philae, before 
it branches amid the cliffs, a pile of rock stands in the 
midst of it at the highest point of its bed ; this pile has 
been a favourite spot for royal tablets of the XVIIIth 
dynasty, but these have been already published. On 
a rock just to the east of them, however, is a private 
tablet, No. 155, of Ramesside age, and a rough 
graffito, 156. The rest of the inscriptions in this 
road are scattered along the first mile or so out 
from Assuan. The Greek inscription is a splendid 
piece of work, equal to the very finest hieroglyphics ; 
the sharpness of the cutting, the equality of all the 
lines, their depth, and clear square-cut ends, makes 
this a masterpiece of granite working. It stands 
on a block on the east side of the valley, facing 
west, opposite the south end of the barracks. The 
inscriptions of the master of the rolls, 165, 6, 8, are 
on a very prominent and high block below the 
barracks, and 167 is near these in the middle of 
the valley. Several other large inscriptions accom¬ 
pany 167, but the rock is so buried in the sand 
that they cannot be copied. 

15. Turning now to a more southerly point we 
begin on the river bank at the village of Shellal. 
Here several inscriptions occur of the Xlth and 


11 

Xllth dynasties. Although No. 179 reads strictly 
as Ra-s-sen, yet it seems not improbable that this 
is a blundering abbreviation for Ra-s-hotep-{ab), or 
Amenemhat I., the more so as it is quite possible 
for the Horus-name above the cartouche to have 
been intended for nem-mes-tu. An inscription cut 
by a stranger who visited the place is seen in No. 
211 ; it records “ the noble, the chief of the prophets 
of Hathor, lady of Kes (Cusae), named Senba.” 
Another tablet with a royal name is No. 213, dated 
in the forty-first year of Mentuhotep Ra-neb-kher; it 
mentions the visit of Khati, son of Sitra. This is 
of some importance, as below Silsileh is the great 
tablet. No. 489; there a Khati, who bears the same 
title as here, appears as vizier to Antef, who adores 
the deceased Mentuhotep Ra-neb-kher. That Men¬ 
tuhotep was deceased is not only to be presumed 
from the tablet, as Eisenlohr has done, but is shown 
by No. 443, in which Khati alone adores the mum¬ 
mified form of Mentuhotep. As there is in the 
whole of Lieblein’s Dictionary of about 7,400 persons, 
but one Khati with the title khebt net , or chancellor, 
among the dozen or so of men bearing the name, 
it is not likely that we have to deal with two 
different chancellors Khati in the inscriptions before 
us. It is almost certain, therefore, that Antef of 
No. 489 is adoring his immediate predecessor Men¬ 
tuhotep Ra-neb-kher, as Khati was chancellor within 
a few years of the death of Mentuhotep (from No. 213), 
and appears to have been retained as vizier by the 
successor Antef. This past ministry of his in the 
last reign accounts for the unusual appearance of 
him with the king in the adoration of Mentuhotep. 
This inscription (213) is on a cleavage face of granite 
in a pile of blocks on a low granite cliff overlooking 
the Nile, just at the foot of the lowest of the rapids. 

There are many other short inscriptions on the 
rocks near No. 213; and then no more are found 
until reaching a village in the first piece of shore 
south of the cliffs below the camp. Here is cut 
another tablet of Mentuhotep Ra-neb-kher (also 
dated in his 41st year), in hieratic, by a nobleman 
named Merri. This is on a southward face of rock, 
at the extreme north of the village, some way up 
the cliff. Near it are also two tablets of one 
family; No. 244 is of “the priest, scribe of offerings 
of the god Tahuti, Lord of Hermopolis (Eshmunen), 
a noble of Nefrus (a town near Hermopolis), great 
one of the five in the temple of Tahuti (title of high 
priest at Hermopolis), Am-nefer, devoted to his 
lord, revivified; and his mistress, his beloved, the 
widow, dwelling in his heart, the priestess of Tahuti, 
lord of Hermopolis, his wife, Nekhtemuaimer ” 



12 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


The word set, “cut stone,” with the determinative 
of an obelisk, occurs here after Hermopolis, but the 
meaning is not clear. This inscription is over 
Am-nefer and his wife seated, and was evidently 
cut on the occasion of his death. The next inscrip¬ 
tion, 245, gives a family list of another person who 
had the same name and office, together with some 
other titles; but that it means a different person 
is probable by the wife’s name being Merit, and 
she having died before him; so, unless Nekhtem- 
uaimtr was a second wife, these inscriptions must 
belong to different persons. 

Proceeding further down the stream, the riverside 
path ceases, and tracks lead up to the top of the 
’ ' ^ ere a sma ll cap of sandstone remains upon 
t e granite, not yet denuded away; and where the 
path skirts along this, several very rude graffiti 
ave been cut. These seem to belong entirely to 
the Xlth to XHIth dynasties, judging by the 
names—Apa (249), Sebakhotepi (252), Mentuantef 
( ; 5 f ^ hatl and A nkhnes (342), Usertesen (343), 
nkhu (344), Mentuhotep (345), & c . On the same 
sandstone cap, where a road first winds down to 
the most southerly valley which is reached after 
the cliffs, just below the English camp, there are 
wo more graffiti of the same date, 256-7, naming 
n e aker, Sebakdudu, Mentuensu (who scrawled 
also on the cliff east of Philae, Nos. a and 4), 
Memo and Ameni. Below this, on the riverside, 
there are some rude signs on a loose block. 

Further south there is a long bay broken into 
two or three lesser bays, between the camp cliff 
and the old Assuan cliff. About the middle of 
this part, north of the store camp in the bay, is 
a group of five inscriptions. Two are dated, No. 
271 m the 1st year of Usertesen I., and 262 in 
the 6th year of Usertesen III. A remarkable 
inscription, of a period of which there is no other 
trace at Assuan, is that of Harer, a superintendent 
of the palace, praising, and beloved of, the daughter 
of King Kashta, the priestess of Amen, Amenardus. 
The title priestess of Amen was hereditary in the 
female line of the royal princesses, and distinguishes 
the legitimate female line of descent in the end 
of the empire. The other inscriptions here are long 
family lists; 267 and 268 name four brothers, with 
their mother, grandmother, and cousins on the 
female side; together with several other scraps of 
relationships which probably belong to the same 
family; but not one husband or father is named. 
No. 269 gives a long list of persons entitled si-en- 
mehen, “child of the dwelling of Osiris”; it seems 
hardly likely that a lot of young acolytes should 


be thus commemorated as deceased, so that si rather 
refers here to some adult title. That it does not 
refer to their being sons of a number of priestesses 
—and thus born in the temple precincts—seems 
shown by their mothers never having priestly titles 
No. 270 mentions four mothers of a number of 
brethren, and in one case the father, Ankhsi; two 
grandmothers, Keku and Kemt, and one great¬ 
grandmother, Pent, are the oldest members of the 
family. 

16. On the south side of the town of Assuan is a 
fine inscription, 273, cut under Usertesen I And 
on the side toward the Cufic cemetery are several 
early inscriptions cut in large bold characters, but 
now half buried. They all border on the line of 
path which still runs out toward Philae, showing 
tiat this identical road has been in use for 4000 
years; but during that time it has been so much 
raised by blown sand and rubbish from the succes¬ 
sive town ruins, that the inscriptions, which were 
cut large and boldly because of their height from 
the eye, are now nearly buried. The courtiers 
o the Empire, as we have observed, appropriated 
earlier panel's, and cut out the older inscriptions, 
sometimes leaving palimpsest traces as in No 274’ 

where we read an old name, Haksit, “daughter of 
the prince.” 

The rocks amid which the modern town of 
Assuan is built have many inscriptions on them. 
Some are very rude, as Nos. 279-284; but most 
of them are fairly cut, with shallow lines, and are 
of the usual types of family lists. One on the 
rocks below the high Nile, No. 393, is very large 
and deeply cut, and can be read from afar. 295 
contains the only dedication in the place to Ptah- 
res-anbu-sokar, Ptah-sokar of Memphis. On the 
opposite bank of the Nile are a few scrawls on 
the sandstone, which here comes down to the 
water’s edge (Nos. 305-7). 


17 ; A t Elephantine there are a few very rou-h 
inscriptions on the riverside; these are marked by 
bruising away the lustrous black coat which has 
foimed upon the granite wherever the Nile flowed 
over it. There are also some better inscriptions 
including the names of Aahmes II. (302), which 
seems to have been hitherto overlooked. By 
far the most interesting, however, is a set of 
tablets cut on a block of granite which sticks up 
out of the accumulated dust and mud in the 
beginning of the road to the village, just above 
the ferry. While looking around for inscriptions, 





THE ROCK INSCRIPTIONS OF ASSUAN. 


I saw the top line of this, naming Rameri, on the 
rock, with some heads of further inscriptions below, 
as this was then buried as far up as the topmost 
signs in the tablets. After getting a couple of 
men to clear away the dust for two or three feet 
beneath, the whole came to light. The earliest 
inscription has been a band along the top (309), 
afterward us'urped by Rameri, who altered the 
cartouche and the prefixed title. That this must 
be originally before Pepi Rameri is therefore certain ; 
and it runs rather sloping, diverging from the top 
of the Unas tablet below it, in a way which it 
would not do if cut later than that. Unas could 
not conform to it, as such a line would have 
tipped his figures over backwards. Hence it is 
probably before Unas. The traces of signs left 
in the cartouche show Ra, then a flat-based sign, 
and then nefer at the end. The only king to 
whom this can agree is Ra-kha-nefer, Hor-a-kau, 
in the middle of the Vth dynasty, a most likely 
period for it. This is the more interesting, as the 
king is hitherto only known by this name in the 
list of the tomb of Tunari at Sakkara. The only 
other mentions which have been supposed to belong 
to this same king are in the table of Abydos, 
where he is called Ra-nefer-f, and on scarabs bear¬ 
ing Ra-nefer; both of these are, however, referred 
to another king, Ra-ases-ka, by other writers, leaving 
the table of Sakkara as our only instance hitherto 
of the name Ra-kha-nefer. He is supposed to be 
the same person as Hor-a-kau, whose name twice 
appears in land names on tombs of the Vth dynasty. 
This line of inscription projects in the original 
beyond the Unas tablet, but its position is here 
shifted a little for the convenience of drawing. The 
next inscription placed here was that of Unas (312), 
and it is remarkable for several details. The king 
is represented standing, with the hud , so familiar 
in later sculptures, above him. This is, so far as 
I remember, by far the earliest representation of 
this symbol; yet it appears with all the details 
as in later times, the disc, flanked by serpents, 
amid the outstretched wings. Beneath the cartouche 
is a fresh title, “lord of the mountains,” referring 
to the sovereignty of Unas over this rugged region. 
The line at the bottom gives a curious mode of 
spelling the name of the god Khnumu; first the 
vase khnum, and then the ti expressed as a plural 
by three rams. Khnumu is often followed by the 
ram-headed god as a determinative (see 76, 77, 84, 
106, &c.), and in one case (36) is expressed by 
the god with the vase khnum on his head; but 
the appearance of the three rams here as a plural 


*3 

I is strange, and may be of importance mytho¬ 
logically. The next inscription here is of Pepi 
Rameri (309), appropriating the older inscription 
of Ra-kha-nefer. Unfortunately the latter part of 
this band is weathered away. Then Pepi II., 
Ra-nefer-ka, engraved another tablet (311), using 
the side of that of Unas. Among the inscriptions 
known of him there is a fragment from Girgeh, now 
at Bulak, which mentions the sed festival that appears 
on this tablet. This festival occurred at the sed or 
“ tail ” of each period of thirty years, or week’s 
change of the rising of Sirius in the Sothis period. 
Next Antef-a engraved his tablet (310), which shows 
us that the Horus-name (or Ka-name) Uah-ankh, 
given by Lepsius (Kgsb. 1 S6«) belongs to this Antef, 
apparently the second of Lepsius; thus showing 
the second and fourth Antef of Lepsius to be 
probably the same person, with or without the 
suffix of “great.” We shall further consider this 
period in dealing with the tablet No. 489 further 
on. Lastly, Amenemhat I. has carved on the 
opposite side of the block a tablet (308) with 
his Horus-name and throne name. This block, 
with its successive inscriptions, shows plainly the 
decadence of Egyptian art. The details of the 
hawks in each inscription are enough; in that 
of Unas the claws are clearly shown, the legs are 
naturally bent, and the head is expressive; under 
Antef the legs and claws are sticks, and the head 
is conventional; while under Amenemhat the bird 
is a mere travesty. This series of tablets, for their 
age, their historic interest, and their size, are among 
the finest rock inscriptions of the district; and it 
seems strange that no archaeologist walking into the 
village of Elephantine had noticed them before. 

. We have now noticed the positions and most 
striking points of the multitude of rock inscriptions 
of Assuan and its neighbourhood. Those of the 
island of Sehel, having been already largely copied 
by Mariette, we did not visit that place. This 
collection must be looked on as a supplement to 
the small number of the most important inscriptions 
which have been published before; but it will give a 
large quantity of fresh matter on both the subjects 
of titles and also of names, as will be seen on 
referring to the index of names. Those in the 
index with L prefixed are already published in 
Lieblein’s Dictionary; those with a spot are vari¬ 
ants of those in' the Dictionary; the unmarked 
ones are fresh. The light thrown on family re¬ 
lationships has also to be considered ; and in these 
and other ways this long series will afford material 
for study. 



M 


A SEASON IN EGYPT 


CHAPTER II. 

THE ROCK INSCRIPTIONS BELOW ASSUAN. 

18. At about six miles north of Assuan a low 
plateau of broken up sandstone extends out from 
the eastern hills, through the fertile plain, towarc 
the Nile; it rises about twenty feet above the 
present alluvium, and as the road skirts along by 
its base, travellers have been tempted to recorc 
their names on the blocks. There are several Cufic 
inscriptions, and four in hieroglyphics, Nos. 313-6; 
but apparently not of importance. 

At about two or three miles further north the 
cliffs approach the river, and at about a dozen feet 
from the ground is a fine inscription (318) of the 
temple scribe, Khnumu-hotep: a little further north 
is a name of a priest, Pa-amen-mes (317). 

Two or three miles further still, the cliff descends 
abruptly into the river, and the riverside path has 
to rise over the broken slope of rock, and passes 
the obstruction at a high level. At the south end 
of this path there is high up on a flat face of the 
rock a very neatly cut inscription (17 inches x 29) 
of Haa-ab-ra (No. 321). This probably shows the 
date of quarrying here for building at Korn Ombo, 
as this quarry was the only one south of that 
place from which blocks could be floated down; 
and, as we shall see further on, the quarry marks 
here are the same as on the blocks at Kom Ombo. 
By the side of this is a boat with 8 oars roughly 
marked in, which is evidently far older than^the 
tablet. Also a drawing of the forepart of a grain 
boat (320), showing the projecting platform at the 
side on which cargo is placed, and the heaps of 
grain, or fodder, exactly as in boats of the present 
time. The repetition of “scribe” about this sug¬ 
gests that the many graffiti of scribes on the rocks 
may record the scribes of estates, who accompanied 
cargo boats down the Nile to attend to the sale of 
the produce. Two names of scribes are near this 
(319), Meta and Kakhent. On going up the path 
a Coptic inscription of 14 lines is to be seen, cut 
at the highest point of the pass, with a long’ and 
finely-cut Arabic inscription below it. And at the 
north end of the path, on a large block of the 
sandstone which has fallen from above, many graffiti 
have been scratched. Nos. 323-331 show whit are 
intelligible of them; but as the block has rolled 
over further since these were cut, they are many 
of them almost inaccessible beneath it. Just to 
the north of the end of the path is a small quarry. 


19. We now descend the Nile for about 40 miles 
below Assuan, to the region of Silsileh. The most 
important group of' inscriptions here lie along a 
valley which was the line of a caravan road in the 
early days of the Xlth and Xllth dynasties. This 
valley was first noticed by Harris, who in 1853 
worked along the Nile bank at this point; but he 
does not seem to have gone up it, only noticing a 
large scene at the mouth of it. Eisenlohr in 1869 
also visited it, drawn hither by the mention in 
Murray s Guide: but he did not go up it, according 
to his account in the Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch., May 
3 , 1881. The place is opposite to Silweh, and is 
known as Hosh ; and more specifically the ravine is 
called Shut-er-regal, and the group of Mentuhotep 
and Antef is known as Es sab’a rigaleh, or “the 
mighty (lion-like) men.” Mariette alludes to this 
valley (Des Nouvelles Fouilles ) in these words: 

There exists, it is said, near Gebel Silsileh a valley 
in the midst of the desert, where the rocks preserve 
the names, cut by ancient travellers, of nearly all 
the kings of the Xlth dynasty; in the tongue of 
the land it is called the Hunter’s Rest; it is needful 
also to search there.” We landed in search of this 
valley on the west side of the river, at a few miles 
below it, and thus found another series of graffiti 
which we shall notice further on. We here begin 
with the upper end of this valley; it is a ravine in 
the sandstone, with more or less cliff-like sides, 
about twenty to sixty feet high; its width is seldom 
more than about 50 yards, the bottom being of 
deep sand. The inscriptions are on the south side, 
which is both the most upright and the shady side. 
They begin near the point where a large sand-drift 
fills the valley; only one occurring beyond this, and 
that at a considerable distance (No. 357). This is 
in honour of Hatasu after her death, and under the 
reign of Tahutmes III., and is therefore a very 
unusual conjunction of names, as Hatasu’s (or 
Hatshepsu s) name, so far from being inscribed 
after her death, was almost always erased then. 
As it is a funereal tablet for the chief of the works 
of the palace Penaa (or, as we shall see in 476, 
Penaati), it shows that he must have died just after 
Hatasu, before the edict for the erasure of her 
name had gone forth. Also it shows that the 
destruction of her memorials did not take place 
instantly on her decease; suggesting that her death 
was not accompanied or caused by open rebellion 
and violence. 

The beginning of the series of inscriptions is on 
a large block bearing Nos. 358 to 365. The most 
important of these is the scene 359, where Ra-s- 




THE ROCK INSCRIPTIONS BELOW ASSUAN 


ankh-ka, as deceased and mummified, is seated by 
a table of offerings, with various attendants around 
him. Two nobles kneel behind him, one with 
Tahuti in his name; while two attendants—one 
named Mentuhotep—bring ibexes to offer to him. 
In the original there is a considerable space be¬ 
tween these last and the table of offerings, which 
space is filled by a wholly different style of inscrip¬ 
tion, which is by its position evidently earlier than 
Sankhkara; this is No. 366. On a block near this 
are Nos. 367-70. 363, 7, 8, and 9 are clearly all 

the same inscription written rather differently. After 
these a long space is bare of inscriptions, until 
reaching 371, etc. In 385 appears the cartouche of 
Ra-sebek-em-saf. This seems probably to be that 
of the king, as Ra was sometimes prefixed to names 
which are generally without it; as for instance 
Sneferka and Rasneferka, Ases-kaf and Ra-ases-kaf. 
The draught-board, with signs opposite the squares, 
is curious; it is marked on a flat block in the floor 
of the valley, on which persons could play, but the 
number of squares, 3x9, is different to the 3x10 
always found in, later times. The title mer ast, 

“ chief of the place,” often occurs, as in Nos. 380-2, 
398, 404, 408, 416, &c. Such of the names here as 
are certainly legible, are entered in the index of 
names. The Ka-name Uaj, No. 414, probably 
belongs to the XHIth dynasty from its style, 
though it does not agree to any of the few known 
of that age. The cartouches, 430, seem to be of 
an unknown king Ra-hor-a, or Ra-em-a, with the 
private name of Hotep. Though they have been 
a good deal bruised, it is certain that they do not 
repiesent any king hitherto known. The form need 
not surprise us; the ending with the seated figure 
a is paralleled in the name of king Aufna: and 
this might possibly read Ra-em-a, “ Ra is in me”: 
the personal name Hotep is very common at this 
period of the middle kingdom. No. 4q 4 belongs to 
a king who can hardly be identified, although Mr 
Griffith and myself examined the cartouche very 
carefully; if not Ra-ma-kheru (Amenemhat IV.), it 
must be a new king. The copies signed with E. 
beside G.P. and <p, mark those published by 
Eisenlohr in Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch., 3rd May 1881. 
His remark there on the omission of makheru after 
the name of Tahutmes I., in No. 476, is doubtful, 
as Mr Griffith has it in his copy from which I 
have drawn. It rather seems that Penati was 
superintendent of the royal works under Amen- 
hotep I., Tahutmes I., and Tahutmes II., placing 
this inscription in the reign of the last; while, 
according to No. 357, he died just after Hatasu, 


15 

and before Tahutmes III. had ordered the removal 
of her name from the monuments. In No. 479, a 
scribe has placed his name with that of his sove¬ 
reign Neferhotep. And in 480 is the name of 
Amenhotep I., “ beloved of Horus, Lord of Meh,” 
the capital of the XVIth nome of Upper Egypt. 
Adjoining this, and apparently contemporary, are 
the inscriptions 483 and 488. The principal object 
in the valley, occupying the most prominent place, 
on a flat face of rock just at the mouth, is the 
large tablet of Mentuhotep and Antef (No. 489), 
which is raised some distance from the ground. It 
is cut in fine low relief, with well wrought details; 
as in also the small tablet No. 443, which is on a 
fallen block a little to the west. For the con¬ 
sideration of the historical results, reference must 
be made to the chapter on “ Some Historical Data.” 

20. After reaching the mouth of the Seba Rigaleh 
valley, a straggling succession of graffiti are to be seen 
on the sandstone rocks, which border the west side 
of the Nile for some three or four miles northwards. 
These inscriptions (497-569) record various travellers 
who passed ; the most important of them, perhaps, 
being the Phoenician inscription. No. 523. This is 
on a low cliff face, someway above the river, but 
accessible from rocks in front of the cliff; it is partly 
hidden by a block which lies in front of the north 
end of it. Professor Sayce translates it “ Bodka 
cried to Isis,” and assigns it to the 6th or 5th century 
B.c. (see Babylonian and Oriental Record, October 
1887). In No. 539 there seems to be the name of Pepi. 

Along with all these inscription-graffiti is a vast 
number of figures of animals, &c., not necessarily 
connected with the graffiti, and in most cases wholly 
distinct, and of a different age. These figures have 
never received any attention hitherto, and their 
number deters one from copying or even cataloguing 
them. They are of all periods; some probably done 
in modern times; others later than the inscriptions, 
but ancient; and others older than the inscriptions. 
Beneath the great Mentuhotep tablet are several 
figures of giraffes, hammered in upon the rock face, 
and one of these distinctly has interfered with the 
arrangement of a graffito of Amenhotep I. (It is 
possible that these figures are intended for camels; 
but the necks are quite straight, although raised 
upward, and there is no hump shown, so that it 
seems more likely that they are giraffes.) With this 
certain evidence of the antiquity of such animal 
figures, we may be prepared to give full weight 
to the collateral evidence of their weathering and 
appearance. One of the clearest cases is on the 



i6 


A SEASON IN EG YPT. 


great isolated rock in the valley at El Kab; there, 
alongside of graffiti of the Vlth dynasty, is a draw¬ 
ing of a long boat with a great number of oars; anc 
though the graffiti are but little darkened from the 
colour of fresh rock, during the thousands of years 
they have been exposed, yet the boat is almost as 
dark as the native surface of rock of geologic age. 
This is no isolated case; repeatedly on the rocks of 
the Soba Rigaleh neighbourhood, the animal figures 
alongside of the inscriptions are seen to look far 
older than the graffiti of the Xllth and XVIIIth 
dynasties. There is a great range of colour of the 
surface by which to judge; the fresh sandstone is of 
a slightly browny white, while the ancient weathering 
is of a very dark brown ; the absolute loss of the rock 
face being probably not the thickness of a single 
grain of sand during thousands of years in most 
parts. Hence, while on the average we might say 
that the inscriptions of four thousand years ago are 
but perhaps a quarter or half as dark as the old face, 
the oldest of the animal figures are perhaps three- 
quarters of the way toward the colour of the primitive 
surface. The amount of rain wash running down the 
face of the rock makes great differences in the colour¬ 
ation ; but in many cases we can compare figures and 
graffiti close together in such a way that all natural 
effects are equalised. This whole subject of these 
primaeval drawings deserves full study by itself; my 
object at present is to give such an account of what I 
saw while copying the inscriptions, as to ensure these 
representations receiving the notice which is due to 
the oldest remains in Egypt. The figures of all ages 
include men, horsemen, giraffes, camels, elephants 
(four N. of the Phoenician inscription, with tusks and 
trunks, and large African ears), ostriches and boats of 
all kinds; one of the largest boats has thirteen oars 
besides the steering oar, with a figure seated on the 
top of the cabin, and an attendant behind it. It 
seems probable that many of these figures date from 
a time when the elephant and ostrich lived in Nubia 
and Southern Egypt; such was the case within the 
period of hieroglyphic writing, as the elephant occurs 
in the name of the island called thence by the Greeks 
Elephantine. 

In and near the quarries, two to four miles north of 
the Saba Rigaleh, are several Greek graffiti of interest 
(Nos. 570-579 ; see also Eisenlohr in Zeit’s A eg. Spr. 
1885). They seem to have been all written by one 
set of quarrymen, who were there in the 1 ith year of 
Antoninus, 149 a.d. The engineer Apollonios, and 
the chief engineer Apollos Petesos (575, 576) were 
apparently the principal men; and the work was 
being carried on for a temple of Apollo (or Horus), 


which was very probably at Esneh, as work was 
executed there under Antoninus. One Psaman ... is 
eagei to record his feat in getting out great stones of 
11 cubits for the pylon of this temple (No. 571). 
Three of the inscriptions (570, 572, 578) mention the 
mooring place where vessels came to embark the 
stones; and (570, 571, 578?) we read of the Nile 
rising to the mooring place or quay. This rising 
took place on the 25th day of the month Mesore 
(see 570, 578, and 572 ?), which was equivalent in 
149 A.D. to the 8th of July. The historical questions 
with which this is connected are discussed in the 
chapter on “ Some Historical Data.” 

21. Turning south from the Saba Rigaleh valley 
toward Silsileh, many more graffiti and quarries are 
to be seen; a family of quarrymen are recorded in 
No. 592, Oneous, his three sons Psenanes, Petosiris, 
and Ones, and the son of Petosiris, called after his 
uncle Ones. On reaching Silsileh, we meet with an 
inscription of Pepi Rameri on a large block by the 
liverside, below the cliff, south of the temple of 
Horemheb. The position of this is important as 
giving a decisive guarantee that no great change 
has affected the narrows of Silsileh since the Vlth 
dynasty. All appearances are strongly against the 
idea of any appreciable difference having taken 
place along the river bank within historic times: 
certainly at the narrowest point not a foot of rock, 
probably not a quarter of an iuch, has been removed 
since the XVIIIth dynasty tombs were cut there, 
except occasionally where a few feet thickness has 
fallen down, owing to wear and decay beneath it. 
It is to geologic time,—when every gorge in Egypt 
poured down its floods into the river,—when the 
Nile stream rolled on 100 feet in depth, scouring 
banks of debris along its sides, and wearing palaeo¬ 
lithic implements which now lie high up on the 
hills, it is to that age that we must look for the 
filling of the vast old channels on the eastern side, 
both at Silsileh and at Assuan. It would need 
dozens of such Niles as the present to fill the old bed 
on the east of Gebel Silsileh; and when that was 
filled the present little cut through the rocks was 
merely a bye-path, quite insufficient for the full 
stream, which probably began to wear it through by 
rising high enough to pour over a saddle between the 
lills. 

22. At El Kab there is a large mass of graffiti 
of the Vlth dynasty; but knowing that they were 
some, or all, published, we did not stop to copy 
them. A few on the little temple of Amenhotep III. 



*7 


THE ROCK INSCRIPTIONS BELO W ASSUAN. 


are here given. No. 636 is on a pillar, plastered over 
in early times. The others are on the inside of the 
temple; and also elaborate jokes of inscription for 
the kas of Mariette and of J. De Rouge, and one 
dated in the nominal reign of the Comte de Cham- 
bord. The Greek one, No. 648, is published by 
Bockh in the Corpus, but incorrectly. The Theban 
graffiti do not call for any remark; they are all of 
the XIXth and XXth dynasties, and the king’s 
names and private names are fully catalogued in this 
volume. In 693 we may just note that Alexander 
came from Thmuis. The Dahshur quarry marks on 
the stones are interesting from their age. On 697 is 
noted the 16th (?) day of the month Mesori. I 
looked longingly on the blocks for traces of car- 
touches, and only found what may be a part of one 
in No. 703, where most of it has been dressed away 
in building. This looks like Ra-ma . . . ., and, if so, 
this south stone pyramid of Dahshur must belong to 
Amenemhat IV. Such a result would be just in 
accord with the fragments of clustered lotus columns 
(like those of Beni Hasan, and the temple of 
Howara) which I have seen in the ruins of the 
temples at Dahshur. The style of construction of 
the pyramid, and its position, are nevertheless both 
against the attribution of it to the Xllth dynasty. 

23. The subject of quarry marks is much connected 
with the graffiti; and while examining the quarries 
for inscriptions, I also took note of the various quarry 
marks on their sides. At the quarries of W. Silsileh 
and down to Silweh, it was a custom to sculpture in 
relief at the head of a quarry some distinctive mark 
by which all the blocks from there were to be known. 
These relief types, or standard quarry marks, are 
carefully carved, and some of them are given in out¬ 
line in the plate (Nos. 17, 18, 19, 64, 65, and 81). 
Besides these, sets of marks may be seen on the 
quarry side, giving the standard marks with some 
additions; these are shown here, each group being 
divided by a point from the others. Probably these 
were type marks, to be copied on to the blocks of one 
particular batch. When we copy the quarry marks 
from buildings, then it is easy to settle from what 
place, and sometimes even from which quarry, the 
blocks have been brought. Thus all the blocks of 
the eastern pylon at Denderah bear the theta and 
arrow (53), which is the standard mark of one parti¬ 
cular quarry north of the Soba Rigaleh (19). At 
Edfu on the quay we find the table of offerings (54), 
which seems to be characteristic of Silsileh (69, 70, 
73 . 93 )- The quay at Esneh also bears the table of 
offerings mark, 100, 103, and the shrine 109, like 


Silsileh, 79. At Korn Ombo, where no quarry lay 
above it from which the blocks could be floated down, 
except one where the path runs over the cliff, there 
we meet just the two quarry marks which are found 
at this southern quarry. ' The large designs, 82 to 99, 
at Silsileh seem hardly like mere quarry marks ; but 
the type of a shrine may well have belonged to this 
quarry, from the fine shrine of Amenhotep III. which 
stood here, surmounted by a hawk; the fragments of 
this shrine and of the bird may still be seen. 


CHAPTER III. 

SOME HISTORICAL DATA. 

24. We have already briefly mentioned the tablets 
of Mentuhotep Ra-neb-kher, and some of the histori¬ 
cal results to be drawn from them. We will here 
consider more at length the changes which must 
follow in our views of the period. The tablets 489 
and 443, even taken alone, prove conclusively that 
Antef succeeded Mentuhotep, and worshipped him, 
as did also the chancellor Khati; and No. 213 shows, 
as already remarked, that Khati had been the chan¬ 
cellor of Mentuhotep Ra-neb-kher, and continued in 
the same position under Antef. From all this we 
may conclude that Mentuhotep Ra-neb-kher and his 
wife Aah (or Aaht, Wiedemann, or Mertefaah, as 
Eisenlohr reads it) were the parents of Antef. We 
have obtained, therefore, two very strong presump¬ 
tions from the rock inscriptions which modify our 
views of the Xlth dynasty. (1.) We see that the 
form of the Antef names was not invariable; for 
Lepsius gives (Kgsb. 156 bis) the Horus-name Uah- 
ankh, as associated with the king Antef; while at 
Elephantine the same belongs to king Antef-a (310). 
Unless, therefore, two kings of one dynasty took the 
same Horus-name, a thing never known in any other 
case, we must believe that the adjunct a , “great,” was 
added at a later date to an Antef who began his reign 
without it. (2.) We find an Antef, son of Mentuhotep 
Ra-neb-kher, succeeding him, like the similar case 
where Antefaa is known to be son of queen Khnum- 
nefer-het (pyramidion, Br. Mus. 520), the wife of a 
Mentuhotep (coffin, Br. Mus. 6656a). Hence the 
Antefs and Mentuhoteps must have been to some 
extent alternate, and Lieblein’s arrangement must be 
altogether set aside. The same result is very strongly 
marked in the rock inscriptions; there the names 
Antef and Mentuhotep are completely intermingled, 
and one is seldom found without the other near it; 


















i8 


A SEASON IN EGYPT 


they are even joined in one name, Mentuhotep-antef 
(598); everything points to their being of one family, 
and certainly not rival dynasties, or of different 
periods. Further, another consideration seems to 
have been overlooked: the Antefs of the table of 
Karnak must, by their insertion there, certainly be 
the most legitimate Theban line; and hence they 
cannot be other than the Antefs buried at Thebes, in 
spite of a difference of title. This reduces the dozen 
of Antefs that have been written about to less than 
half the number; as also the name Uah-ankh found 
at Elephantine has reduced Antefa and Antef to one. 
And still further, these six names in the Karnak table 
have been said to be all Antefs ; but one begins Men 
. . . . , and another is lost, so that there are but four 
Antefs guaranteed here. 

25. Let us now, after necessarily parting from the 
theories hitherto held, see briefly how much can be 
made from the existing data; setting aside for the 
present all monuments bearing simply the names 
Antef and Mentuhotep, which are without any dis¬ 
tinctive title or evidence of relationships. Firstly, 
the alternation of the two names is strongly shown, 
as we noticed above; and the Egyptian custom of 
calling a child after his grandfather we see fully 
carried out in the list of the VUIth Memphite 
dynasty. In that, the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, nth, 
13th, and 15th kings of the table of Abydos, all bear 
the name of Ra-nefer-ka with various distinctions. 
So that, with the exception of one step (due perhaps 
to two brothers, or the succession of a grandson), 
there is an unbroken series of alternate generations 
bearing the same name. As this immediately 
preceded the Antef-mentuhotep family, the same 
principle there may be expected. In place of 
believing in as many Antefs as possible, let us then 
rather see how few are required by history. Firstly, 
as a basis, we have the table of Karnak. There we 
read the order,— 1 Antef, 2 Men (tuhotep), 3 Antef, 

4 Antef, 5 (lost), and 6 Antef. If, on the analogy of 
the VUIth dynasty, we allow the lost name to 
be Mentuhotep as a working hypothesis, we then 
have only a certain irregularity of two Antefs 
together; and the point which exactly explains 


this is the succession of Antef a and An-antef as 
two brothers (Wiedemann, 223). Hitherto, this 
could not have been accepted, owing to the differ¬ 
ence of names, but the tablet 310 has just shown 
Antef-a to be otherwise Antef; and similarly An- 
antef may well be only a variant of Antef, written 
with both the sounds a and n of the sign an. 
Next, another clue is in the six lost kings of the 
Turin papyrus, probably equivalent to the six at 
Karnak, followed by Ra-neb-kher and Ra-sankh-ka. 
This agrees to Ra-neb-kher Mentuhotep being 
outside of the Antef list of Karnak; and as two 
Mentuhoteps are allowed for in that, we have three 
altogether, which suffices for all historical facts. 
There are then the two Mentuhoteps,—Neb-hotep 
and Ra-neb-taui,—to be assigned to the second and 
fifth places of Karnak; there is not much to show 
which is which, but a small consideration points 
to Ra-neb-taui being No. 5. He is entitled on 
scarabs Neter nefer, “the good god,” and we find 
this title assumed by the Antef No. 6, next to 
No. 5. It is not likely to have been taken by 
No. 2 and then dropped again until No. 6. Thus 
M. Neb-hotep will be the Mentuhotep who married 
queen Khnum-nefer-het-Mentuhotep, recorded on a 
pyramidion (Br. Mus. 520). Lastly, we have to divide 
between the Antefs in No. 1 and No. 6. These must 
be the Ra-seshes-har-apu-maa Antufa of the Abbott 
papyrus, and Ra-nub-kheper Antef of the same, who 
reigned over fifty years, and whose tomb was found 
by Mariette. There is little to settle the attribution 
between these; but as Ra-nub-kheper has left many 
remains, and a fine tomb, he is rather more likely to 
have come later on when the dynasty had more fully 
developed, and was evidently more flourishing, than 
at the very beginning of it. His long reign of over fifty 
years, moreover, gives room for a long co-regency to 
account for part of the over forty-six years of his 
successor Ra-neb-kher Mentuhotep. 

26. We may then say that the data lead us to 
the following scheme of this period, referring to the 
Kongsbuch, Lieblein’s Ckronologie , and Livre des 
Rois. 


Turin 

Table of Karnak. 

Kgsb. 

Lieb. 

Liv. 

Papyrus. 




Rois. 

(I) 

Antef I. 

ISI 

68 

127 , 




77 

136} 

(2) 

Mentuhotep I. 

162 

69 

128 ) 




86 

145 ) 



155 

... 

-{ 


Names on Monuments and Remains. 


I2 7) 

l Ra-seshes-har-ap-maa Antufa (Abbott pap). 

| Neb-hotep Mentuhotep. Tablet at Konosso. 


6656(2). 




SOME HISTORICAL DATA. 


l 9 


Turin Table of Karnak. 

Papyrus. 

(3) Antef II. 

Kgsb. 

154 

Lieb. 

70 

Liv. 

Rois. 

I29 

15 6 a 

74 

133 - 



78 

137 

(4) Antef III. 

156 

7 1 

130 


79 

138 

(5) (Mentuhotep II.?) 

163 

CM 

tx. 00 

131 

146 

(6) Antef IV. 

160 

73 

132 


76 

135 

Ra-neb. 

159 

88 

I48 

Rasankh . . 

165 

89 

149 


I am far from saying that this is certainly the 
truth, but it accounts for all the kings yet known, 
and so far no monument necessitates our making 
any addition to such a list. The principal points 
on which this is open to revision are the transposition 
of Mentuhotep I. and II., and the transposition of 
Antef I. and IV. Also the table of Karnak might 
authorise making Ra-neb-kher the second Mentu¬ 
hotep, and Ra-nub-kheper his Antef son ; but then 
the order of the Karnak list, placing Rasankhha 
before Ra-neb-kher, is contradicted by the Turin 
papyrus and the tables of Abydos and Sakkara; 
so that it is probably corrupt here. Some revision 
is needful, as the accepted arrangement of Lieblein 
is certainly wrong; and this order, moreover, agrees 
better with the gradual development of the dynasty 
and increase of the monuments than any other. 
Including the other kings of this dynasty, who 
appear to have preceded these, Ra-snefer-ka (Lieblein 
No. 80), Ra . . . . (81), Ra-useren (82), Ra-neb-nem 
(83), and Ana (75), there are five more; these with 
the nine above make fourteen already accounted 
for out of Manetho’s number of sixteen for the 
eleventh Diospolite dynasty. Two therefore are still 
to be found, either new kings, or an additional Mentu¬ 
hotep and Antef link to be separated from some 
stated above. At all events, we are thus clear from 
placing Theban Antefs in a Herakleopolite dynasty, 
the Xth, as has been done by some writers. 

27. We now turn to a very different subject. It 
is well known that the Egyptians used a year of 
365 days; and thus losing about a quarter of a day 
every year, their months retrograded round all the 
seasons, recurring to the same point, as they believed, 
at the end 1460 real years, or 1461 of their wander¬ 
ing years. Actually, the period was 1508 years, 


Names on Monuments and Remains. 

Uah Ankh. Ra- (Ter?) seshes-ap-maa Antef or 
Antefa; son of last. Abbott pap. B.M. 520, 
665 6 a. Elephantine 310. Coffin in Louvre. 

Ra-seshes-her-her-maa Antef., bro. of last. Coffin 
in Louvre. 

Neter-nefer Ra-neb-taui Mentuhotep. Several tablets- 

Ra-nub-kheper Antauf. (Abbott pap.) Obelisks. Tomb 
opened by Mariette: reigned over 50 years. 

Ra-neb-kher Mentuhotep III. Many tablets at Assuan, 
Saba Rigaleh, &c.; reigned over 46 years. 

queen Aah. Soba Rigaleh. 

son, Antef V. Soba Rigaleh. 

Ra-s-ankh-ka. Many tablets. Soba Rigaleh, &c. 

and such we must take it in calculating the relation 
of the months to the seasons; although 1460 years 
is the period for allusions by the Egyptians to this 
cycle. The starting-point is given by the decree 
of Kanobos, line 18, in 238 B.C., when a change 
to a fixed calendar was fruitlessly ordered; also by 
Censorinus writing in 239 A.D., and by Theon (circ. 
400 A.D.). According to these, the heliacal rising 
of Sirius, or the last day in the year on which it 
could be seen before it was lost in the light of the 
dawn on rising, was the 20th of July, and this fell 
on the 1st of Payni, in 238 B.C., or on the 1st 
of the month Thoth, the New Year’s day of the 
calendar, in the year 139 A.D. This was, according 
to Theon’s account, not an actual observation then, 
but a dead-reckoning fixed by the cycle of 1460 
years from the era of Menophres, in 1322 B.C.; and 
this in its turn may have been either a dead reckon¬ 
ing of 1460 year cycles from 2782 B.C., 4242 B.C., 
or 5702 B.C.; or else a real observation according 
to a principle established actually in 2830 B.C., 
4338 B.C., or 5846 B.C. If the principle were laid 
down, and intervening history had been confused, 
the era may have been re-established from actual 
observation, while the principle was older. 

28. From this it is clear that if we have any 
seasonal event fixed to a given point in the 
wandering year, we know in what part of a cycle 
of 1500 years it must have occurred. This principle 
has been applied to fixing dates by calculating from 
the month in the shifting calendar in which cam¬ 
paigns were begun. But another and far older 
datum is before us, in the inscription of Una, under 
Pepi of the Vlth dynasty. Some time ago I noticed, 
in the Pyramids of Gizeh, p. 210, how all the 
transport of stone must have taken place in Egypt 











20 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


during the time of the inundation, both for facility 
of transport, and for the supply of labourers who 
are then disengaged. Now this is strikingly con¬ 
firmed by the inscriptions which I here publish from 
the quarries near Silsileh (570-578). In them we 
see that the quarrymen awaited the rise of the 
Nile, and the day when it rose high enough was 
recorded as the 25th of Mesore, or the 8th of July. 
Further, Una records that he made transports in 
the land of Uauat, and, “at the time of the inunda¬ 
tion, loaded them with very much granite.” Now, 
Una does not mention the month in which he 
brought down this granite; but he gives what is 
perhaps a still better datum. A block of alabaster 
had to be brought from • Hanub, the quarries near 
Siut. This work seems to have been hurried, as 
the short time occupied in getting it, and in build¬ 
ing a boat for it, is specified. “ I also extracted 
that slab in seventeen days. ... I made for it a 
boat of burthen in the little dock, sixty cubits in 
length, and thirty in its breadth, put together in 
seventeen days, in the month of Epiphi.” Apparently 
the boat was building while the block was being 
quarried and brought down, the period, seventeen 
days, being the same; and the special mention 
of the time, when no other such periods are named 
in this long inscription, shows that the work was 
a tour de force. But it was not done in time for 
the inundation. Una continues, “Then there was 
not water in the turns (of the river) to tow to the 
pyramid Sha-nefer of Merenra safely.” This is 
Dr Birch’s translation (Records of the Past, vol. ii.), 
the exact words being, “ not water upon turns 
to-enter-port unto” the pyramid. The phrase “in 
the turns” is her thesu, which is considered as un- 
translateable as yet, by Erman; thes means not 
only a “ turn,” or “ cord,” or “ knot,” but also “ high 
land” or “mountains,” possibly referring to the 
water not reaching to the hills. The determinative 
needs re-examination. This does not, however, affect 
the sense of the passage, which shows that after the 
hurrying of the work in seventeen days,—a haste which 
would be needless if the Nile had been already low, 
—the vessel could not reach up to the landing stage 
at the foot of the causeway to the pyramid, because 
the Nile had begun to fall. Either a delay in coming 
down from Siut, or a fall of the Nile earlier than 
usual, had just upset their calculations. Such seems 
to be the very natural sense of the passage, and 
one exactly in harmony with the details of trans¬ 
port during high Nile, which we know of otherwise. 

29. The fall of the Nile does not begin till the 


first few days of November; and, granting that it 
may have been rather earlier than was reckoned on by 
Una, we may put the arrival of the boat at Memphis 
(which must have been after the fall had made a 
distinct difference) at about the 5th November. As 
it had to come about 250 miles down the Nile, but 
may have been delayed on the voyage, the departure 
from Siut would be about 20th October. The 17 
days of Epiphi would thus begin about the beginning 
of October. Hence the month Epiphi would have 
begun about 25th September, with an uncertainty of a 
week either way for the part of the month not being 
fixed, and another week for the state of the Nile; 
altogether a limit of uncertainty of about a fortnight. 
Now, Epiphi fell at that season in the years 400 B.C., 
1910 B.C., 3420 B.C., and 4930 B.C.; each date within a 
a limit of uncertainty of 60 years either way. The 
first two dates are of course impossible for the reign 
of Pepi; the last also exceeds the limits of all 
chronologers. Hence, 3240 B.C., within sixty years, 
is the date shown by this seasonal statement made 
by Una. On looking at the various chronologies, 
we see that Champollion, Boeckh, Wiedemann, Unger, 
and Mariette, all place Pepi before this date; while 
Brugsch, Lauth, Bunsen, Lepsius, and Lieblein suc¬ 
cessively bring him later down in history. Hence 
this result falls well amongst the various reckonings ; 
the nearest to it being that of Mariette, about two 
centuries earlier, and of Brugsch (by genealogies), 
about as much later. Even if any one may raise 
an objection to this treatment of the passage, yet 
one result is certain, that Epiphi could not have 
come for four months earlier in the season, as then 
there would have been plenty of water; hence it is 
equally impossible for the date of Pepi to be put 
anywhere between 3400 and 2900 B.C. But from 
all the facts—the known habit of transporting stone 
during high Nile (both from the Greek inscriptions 
and that of Una)—the special mention of the haste 
with which the block was cut—and yet the water 
being insufficient to float it to the base of the hills 
when it arrived—I think it may be granted that 
we have here a firmer basis than those yet proposed 
for the date of the Vlth dynasty. This stands solely 
on a seasonal fact, and not on any uncertain festivals 
which may have been changed, and whose identity 
has been so much disputed. 

30. One other datum exists which ought to be 
examined. The Sothis period of 1460 years falls 
139 A.D., 1322 B.C., 2782 B.C., 4242 B.C., 5702 B.C., 
&c. But as the actual cycle astronomically is of 1508 
years, it follows that Sirius cannot have actually 



SOME HISTORICAL DATA. 


risen heliacally on the 1st day of Thoth (New Year’s 
day), on more than one of these epochs; all the 
others are dead-reckonings by the incorrect cycle 
of 1460, or 4 X 365 years, from some actual obser¬ 
vation. On which of these epochs, then, was that 
fundamental observation made which started the 
calendar ? This is not a case where the knowledge 
of an ancient people may carry us back into a 
fictitious past, but where the ignorance of a people 
will lead us back to the real source of their error 
and no further. The error in one Sothis period is 
forty-six years (subject to small changes, for astro¬ 
nomical variation in the precessional and proper 
motions of Sirius, the length of the day, &c.); this 
is g\,- of a cycle; and hence, at the close of 1460 
years, Sirius will not rise heliacally on the same day 
of the year, but at twelve days from the anniversary ; 
or, in other words, on the anniversary it will rise 
forty-eight minutes too soon or too late. This is a 
perfectly appreciable amount; and we should, by 
direct observation, be able thus to settle on which 
Sothis epoch the cycle was started, or if it was 
adjusted at each epoch in default of any accuracy 
in the continuous chronology. The requisite obser¬ 
vations are the present day of the year on which 
Sirius can last be seen before sunrise as observed 
in Middle Egypt; this falls in the middle of May 
now, and so the climatic conditions would be much 
the same as on the initial day in July. Corrections 
for the precession of the equinoxes would be required, 
both for the change of distance between the sun 
and Sirius, which would affect it differently in the 
dawn-light, and also for the position of Sirius to 
the pole, and its proper motion. If some person, 
suitably situated, between Siut and Thebes, would 
watch Sirius morning by morning during May, 
noting how long it is visible before sunrise, until 
it is not to be caught sight of owing to the glow 
of dawn, as it rises later each day, the main fact 
would be obtained of the actual interval between 
the rising Sirius and the sun which renders it in¬ 
visible ; and, with corrections, we should have the 
foundation of the Sothis cycles secured. 


CHAPTER IV. 

THE HORUS-NAMES OR KA-NAMES OF 
EGYPTIAN KINGS. 

31. The very familiar form of name which pre¬ 
cedes the cartouche-names of each king has not 


21 

hitherto been satisfactorily .explained. It has been 
called the Horus-name, as being surmounted by a 
hawk; the square name, as being in a square ; and 
the royal banner or standard, from a mistaken idea 
of the lines beneath it representing a fringe. The 
Egyptian name for it is simply srekh, from rekh, 

“ to know,” with the causative s prefixed, reading 
“ that which makes known.” To determine its 
meaning we must first examine the earliest forms 
of it. As I have pointed out, in Tanis, p. 5, the 
supposed fringe is really a false door, such as is 
seen in the tombs. In PI. xx. will be seen collected 
together all the various examples of early date 
which throw light upon this; most of them are 
from the Denkmciler. First, note in fig. 7 a ^ ne 
example of the patterning of the earliest type of 
the false door, which always stood on the west 
side of the tomb chamber; this was the entrance 
by which the ka or double passed between the inner 
burial chamber and the outer chamber of offerings. 
The designs of these representations of entrances vary 
somewhat, but the typical idea of a doorway flanked 
by recessed panelling is always seen. This door 
type, by gradual dwindling of the door, and in¬ 
crease of the inscribed panel over it, developed into 
the funereal stela, as Professor Maspero has shown. 
Now, when we turn to the pattern beneath the 
square panel of the Horus-names, we find exactly 
the same design; compare especially figs. 3 anc ^ 7 > 
note the little space over the door niche (equivalent 
to the “ drum ” in real doors), and see how like fig. 7 
it is reproduced in figs. 1 and 4- It i s flidte clear 
that throughout the old and middle kingdoms the 
idea of a false door of a tomb was before the 
sculptor’s mind. Turn next to the Empire, when 
such' false doors had ceased to be made, and were 
unfamiliar objects. We then see that an actual 
realistic entrance was represented. In fig. 12 the 
two sides of a double door are clear. Fig. 13 is 
the sumptuous patterning of the decoration beneath 
a Horus-name (equal to the so-called fringe), on a 
recess at the Deir el Bahri temple; the shading here 
is according to the heraldic colour signs, only the 
chequer square should be red and white in the square 
portions, and yellow and white in the long-shaped 
parts. Here, not content to show only the sides of 
a door, the painter put in the lintel, door sill, pivots, 
cross beams of the door, and the two bolts. This 
precious example is conclusive that the idea of a 
door of access was still the meaning of this orna¬ 
ment. A little later, in fig. 16, we see a double 
door with its framing and diagonal braces shown. 
A simple form of doorway also appears at the same 
















22 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


time in fig. 19. Descending to Ptolemaic times 
this space beneath the name was still regarded as 
a doorway; and it is shown—both under Ptolemy II. 
(fig. 20) and Ptolemy XIII. (fig. 21)—as a straight¬ 
forward doorway, and nothing else, having its double 
door closed by a pair of bolts. We need not say 
more to prove that throughout Egyptian art, from 
Seneferu to the last of the Ptolemies, the Horus- 
name was intentionally and knowingly written over 
a doorway, which, in the earlier cases, is seen to be 
copied from the false door of a tomb. 

32. What does this connection mean ? The square 
in which the Horus-name is written must be the 
exact, equivalent of the square panel over the false 
door in the tombs, and the name is the equivalent of 
the figure and name of the deceased written on those 
panels. It is the name of the king as deceased ; the 
name as owner’s name, written over the doorway. 
But it was the ka, or double, or ghost, of the deceased 
person which possessed that doorway; it was solely 
for the ka to pass from the burial vault beneath (the 
shaft of which was supposed to pass behind this false 
door) into the upper chamber, where its food of 
funereal offerings was provided for it (see Professor 
Masperos A rcheologie Egyptienne , p. 115, &c.). The 
name therefore must be the name of the ka. Private 
persons had but one name, and their ka was of the 
same name. But a king, who took a second name on 
ascending the throne, took also a third name for his 
ka. This ka name alone occurs on the doorway in 
the Step pyramid of Sakkara. Under the Empire, as 
he had many ka statues, so he had many ka names. 

33. Now observe what the monuments show us. 
Behind the actual fleshly king, there is often shown 
his double or ka, making offerings with him. Some¬ 
times the ka is of the same size as the king 
sometimes lesser. And on his head he bears, as in 
fig. 15, the Horus-name embraced between the ka 
arms. For fear even this was not sufficient, an in¬ 
scription nearly always accompanies him, reading, in 
IS, “The king’s ka, life of the lord of both lands 
(Upper and Lower Egypt) within the chamber of the 
sarcophagus, and within his chamber of offerings ; all 
life, happiness, and stability, all health to him, all’joy 
of heart to him, like Ra. The word “ within ” 
(khent) may mean “ presiding over,” but the sense is 
unchanged. It could not be stated more explicitly 
that the ka, which bears the Horus or &-name on 
his head, is to pass from the body to the offerings, by 


the very doorway which is represented beneath his 
name. Slightly different is the idea on a beautiful 
sculpture at the Bath Museum, where Ramessu II. is 
accompanied by his ka; the king having his car- 
touches, and the ka having the ka -name above him. 
Behind them is the inscription 14:—“ The king, 
Ra-user-ma, Sotep-en-ra, within the chamber of his 
sarcophagus. The king’s ka (who is) the king 
gliding in the temple (or place of worship) within the 
tomb. The last sign is strange; it must mean the 
tomb; and it looks as if intended to show the dark 
opening of a rock tomb, beneath the mountains, 
whose sign is upon it. Here the king’s body was to 
remain in his sarcophagus, while his ka was to glide 
about in the outer chamber, where offerings were 
provided, either of perishable materials, or imperish¬ 
able representations. In inscriptions 17 and 18 is a 
shorter form which only relates to the benefit of the 
ka to the body. “The king’s ka living within the 
chamber of the sarcophagus, giving him life and 
happiness,” and “the king’s ka within the chamber of 
the sarcophagus, giving him life.” Another form of 
the same idea is where the ka -name appears to act 
and live of itself, provided with ka arms which hold a 
feather, and a staff surmounted by the head of the 
kings ka (fig. 16); and this is known as late as 
Tiberius (fig. 23). The ka was young when the king 
was young; Amenhotep III. as a child, at Luxor, is 
borne by a nurse, and has also his ka borne by a 
nurse behind him; the ka wearing the ka- name, 
between the ka arms, on a stand upon his head. 

It is needless to multiply examples or to describe 
them further. The ka- name of the king was always, 
down to the latest times, associated with the doorway 
of the tomb by which the ka passed to and fro; and 
the ka itself whenever represented, from Amenemhat 
I. (fig. 10) down to Vespasian, always bears the ka- 
name upon his head, as his special name. Let us 
henceforth, then, recognise what is so amply and 
carefully explained to us on the monuments, and 
write of the ka- name as we do of the throne-name 
and personal name of each king. The subject of the 
significance of the ka- names, when thus understood, I 
must leave to authorities in the matter of reading; 
generally the names seem to refer to virtues or deeds 
of the king which would avail him in his journey 
through the hours of night, or to place him under the 
protection of some deity; while such names as Kau- 
neteru, Ka-nekht (written with the ka arms, as well 
as the bull) Usert-kau, Khent-kau-ankhu-nebu, &c., 
should not be overlooked in their allusions. 













FUNEREAL CONES AND OTHER INSCRIPTIONS. 


23 


CHAPTER V. 

FUNEREAL CONES AND OTHER INSCRIPTIONS. 

34. In most Egyptian collections are to be seen a 
few long cones of pottery, stamped on their bases 
with inscriptions in relief; generally but few of these 
are brought home by any traveller or collector, 
their weight and cumbrousness being inconvenient. 
Hence they are far scarcer in museums than would 
be expected on seeing their numbers at Thebes. 
But few have been published hitherto; perhaps 
twenty or thirty types, at the most, from any one 
collection ; yet their interest and value are quite equal 
to that of the shorter funereal stelae. While at 
Thebes this year I steadily collected them from the 
Arabs, and as the inscriptions are all that is really 
required, the bulk of the cone was removed, either 
by sawing, if soft, or breaking, if hard. Thus, with a 
very small loss, I reduced a collection of over 250 to 
a more manageable bulk. On working through 
these in England they were seen to be of a hundred 
different types; and these, with two or three that I 
have seen since in England, are published here in 
Pis. xxi-xxiii. 

The sizes of these cones are variable ; some are 15 
inches long, and 4 inches across the inscribed base; 
others are not more than half that size each way. 
They are nearly always solid, and are usually 
painted white, sometimes with a coat of red beneath 
it. They are found always outside the tomb ; either 
in the sand and chips which covered over the 
entrance to the tomb, or, it is said, in the sand 
before the entrance. Among those here shown, 
probably one of the earliest is No. 72 of Amenemhat 
(Xllth dynasty ?), and the latest, that of the king’s 
son, chief of the Mashuash (99) (XXIVth dynasty). 
The custom of making these cones seems to have 
covered the long range of history, from the rise of the 
middle kingdom to the incoming of Greek influence, 
as Professor Maspero states them to range from the 
Xlth to the XXVIth dynasty. His explanation of 
Aheir meaning, as representing the conical loaves of 
bread with a floury outside, seems obviously true. 
They are only known at Thebes; and they seem to 
have been made there, much as stone figures of 
ducks and other eatables were made at Memphis, 
and offered for the perpetual sustenance of the ka. 
(See “Guide au Mush de Boulaq ,” p. 138). Occa¬ 
sionally these offerings are not conical, but square 
cakes, sometimes wedge-shaped, and stamped on the 
edges. 


35. In dealing with some hundreds of these, it is 
necessary to have some simple and direct method of 
classifying them. Generally it happens that no one 
example of a cone gives the whole inscription; and 
hence the need of comparison, and the difficulty of 
sorting by the names, since the name being at the 
edge is often lost. Sorting by alphabetic names, 
moreover, cannot give a grouping according to age or 
class; and some characteristics of the style are there¬ 
fore better to follow for classification. As a simple 
system, which is always applicable, I have here 
begun with the inscriptions in vertical columns, from 
five down to two columns (1-47); next those without 
dividing lines, which are read vertically in three or 
two parts, or a single column (48-63); next those 
reading horizontally, in two, three, or four parts 
(64-70); then those with horizontal dividing lines 
in three, four, or five divisions (71-99); and lastly, 
various arrangements with scenes (100) and in square 
borders, or in cartouches (101-7). The copies here 
given do not profess to be exact facsimiles, but to 
show the general style and forms of the signs; the 
narrow raised parts being represented by a single 
line, and the broad raised parts being outlined. The 
numbers following some of them show the number of 
copies examined. By the arrangement here followed, 
it will be easy to compare other cones with this collec¬ 
tion ; and such a system would be perhaps the best 
also for a museum. 

36. As some readers may wish to follow out the 
reading of these cones, and as they form a good series 
of short titles, translations of them are here given ; 
for several of the readings I am indebted to Mr 
Griffith, who has also worked over them. The open¬ 
ing formula which is most common is Amakhi kher 
Asar {ee.g. 4-9); this is perhaps best rendered 
“Devoted to Osiris”; it is abbreviated as D. O. 
below here. Another formula is Asar {ee.g. 14-16) 
“the Osirian,” or the deceased as identified with 
Osiris; marked below as O. The usual title of 
deceased persons, makheru , which follows the deter¬ 
minative figure at the end of the name (see 20, 
but usually appearing as merely two lines) is, 
according to Professor Maspero’s explanation, the 
“true voiced,” i.e., possessing the true intoning of 
the defensive formulae for the unseen world; it is 
below here abbreviated as T. V. Of the meaning 
of nebt per as “widow,” at least in earlier times, 
the reasons have been fully stated in sect. 10 on 
the Assuan inscriptions. 

1. D.O. Scribe of the accounts (v. 37) of the cattle of 
Amen, .... the nomes of the south and the north, 



24 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


3- 


10. 

11. 

12 . 

13- 

14. 

i5- 

16. 

i 7 - 

18. 

19. 

20. 

21. 

22. 
23 - 

24. 

25 - 

26. 

27 

28 


Hebi, T.V.; son of the scribe of the accounts of 
the cattle of Amen, Ames .... born of the widow 
La ... . (see 21). 

D.O. Guardian of the vases (?) of Amen, Tahersettnef; 
by his son, making his name live, guardian of the 
vases (?) of Amen, Herari, T.V. 

D.O. Guardian of the vases (?) of Amen, Tahersetnef, 

T.V. 

D.O. The priest Her-ar-n-re-ga, T.V 
D.O. The prophet of Ra-a-kheperu (Amenhotep it.), 
Nefer-neb-neb, T.V. His sister the widow Ta 

D.O. Scribe of the city .... Tahuti-em-heb, called 
.... un-sa-er-su, T.V. 

D.O. Master of the sailors of the chief prophet ot 
Amen, Mer-pet-f (?); the widow Mut. 

D.O. Chief in the heart of the king, Amen-neknt; 

' T.V. before Amen. His sister the widow Mut- 

D.O. The hereditary noble, overseer of cattle (?), 

' overseer of workmen, overseer of. . . ., overseer of 
the cattle of Amen, Mai, T.V. 

D.O. Scribe of the table of the lord of both lands, 
(the king) Neter-mes. 

D.O. Amenemhat. His wife, the widow Sitamen, 
devoted to the great god (the king). 

D.O.of Amen .... Amenhotep. 

O.of Ra-a-kheper-ka (Tahutmes I.), A-kheper 

.’.'.'. devoted to the great god. 

O Overseer of the mares, overseer of the cattle ot 
Amen, Piaa . . . .; by his son overseer of the cattle 

of Amen .... T.V. , , 

O. Overseer of the mares of the king of both lands, 

’ south and north, Meru-T.V. 

O. Hereditary noble, seal bearer, high prophet ot 
Amen, Ra-men-kheper-senb. (v. 98) T.V. 

The royal scribe the overseer of the temple of Amen, 
overseer of the granary .... pa-sar TV. 

Scribe of the accounts of the cattle of Amen, lord of 

Scribe,Overseer'of the house of the head prophet of 
Amen-Ra, Amenhotep, T.V. 

Scribe, overseer of the granaries of the divine wife 
(queen), Amenhotep, T.V.; the widow Lau T.V., 
born of the overseer of the granaries, Ka-Ra, I.V., 
born of the widow Mahu T.V. 

Overseer of the palace .... the royal scribe Khem- 

du-f-an. r .1_ 

The tutor (father-nurse) Aahmes; overseer of the 
royal harem, Aahmes; overseer of the sanctuary 
('cellars?), Aahmes; overseer of the cattle, Aahmes. 
For the ka of the chief prophet of Aah, Nefer-aah, 
TV in peace. The widow the chantress of 
Amen, the praiser of Mut, Neter-hemt, T.V. in 

Satisfying the heart of the king, the captain of the 
bodyguard, making pleasant the land to its extent 

. . . Deped. , x „ . 

The transporter of the cattle (?) of Amen over 

seer of the western hill (necropolis) of Thebes . 

Maste^of tlie serfs, Aahmes; born of ... • Aah- 

RoyalTcrJeT overseer of the granaries of the south 

D. O? < King’s < son > afKeshi (viceroy-prince of Ethiopia) 

D.0. ICnn . e . chief of the priests of Amen, An-ta-ua-ref. 


29 

30 


3 T - 

32 . 

33- 

34- 

35- 

3 6 - 

37- 


38 . 


39 

40. 

41. 

42. 

43- 

44. 

45- 

46. 

47- 

48. 

49. 
5°- 

5 1, 

5 2 

53 

54 - 

55- 

5 6 - 

57- 
58 . 

59- 

60. 

61. 

62. 

63- 

64. 

es¬ 

se. 

67. 

68 . 
70, 


7 1 - 

72. 

73- 


D.O. Chief lieutenant Amenhotep, T.V. His sister 
the widow Arti, T.V. 

D O. High prophet of Amen, Amenhotep. 

D.O. . . 7 . kha, T.V. His-the widow Hent- 

taui. 

D.O. Scribe Aanen. . 

D.O. Captain of the bodyguard, Hebi (v. 25). 

D.O. Guardian of the vases (?) Nefer-renp. 

O. Scribe of the accounts of the cattle of Amen, 
Amenhotep, T.V. His wife, the widow Sit- 

O. Scribe of the treasury of the lord of both lands, 
Simut; son of the judge Pabak; born of the 

widow Tanefer, T.V. T . 

Second prophet of Ramen-kheper (Tahutmes IH.) 
Amenemka (v. 53)1 his wife, the chantress Re¬ 
merit. . . 

Fan bearer of the royal boat, Kha-em-ma, son of Aset 

T.V. 

Chief of the followers, captain of the selected recruits, 
Pasar (see Assuan inscriptions 35, 4 t - 3)- 
Third prophet of Amen, Hotep, T.V. His wife, the 
widow Amenhotep. 

Overseer of the treasury ; overseer of the works; l a- 
hutiamakh, T.V. 

Overseer of the cattle of Amen, Ha-tahuti. 

Overseer of the treasury, scribe, Khonsu. 

Captain (superior of the archers), chief of the infantry. 
Amenemapt. 

Commander of the infantry, Amenemheb. 

D.O. Administrator of offerings of funereal vestmen 
(or chief of the police, v. 77), Lele, T.V. 

D.O. Scribe, Sen-neter, T.V. j 

.... chief of the prophets of Anhur, scribe, Khem-| 

T V. 

The noble, scribe of the words (?) .... of the lord of 
both lands, Pa-ura .... T.V. His son the scribe 

Seal bearer, high prophet of Amen, Khem, and 
Menthu, his name Sen . . . . ar, T.V. 

Seal bearer, fourth prophet of Amen, Ka-em-amen 
(v. 39). 

. Captain Aah, born of Shepstuhat (?) T.V. 

Great scribe, Amenkena, revived (living again) i.V., 

born of the scribe Neferemheb. 

An official of Ra-user-ma, Men-amen-Shenk (Shes- 
hank III.). 

Scribe of the fields of the queen, Tera, i.V. 

Scribe of the queen’s palace, Tahuti-nefer, TV. 
Captain, Hatmeshau. 

Governor of the city, Amenemapt. 

The recruit (see Assuan inscriptions, 35, 4 i_ 3 /j ^ en ~ 
amen. 

Governor of the city, Hapu, T.V. 

.... of the treasury. 

Priest, Tetanefer. 

Royal scribe, overseer of the treasury, Amenemha. 
Fourth prophet of Amen, Si-tahuti, T.V. 

Scribe of the account of the bread of the south and 

north, Amenemhat. . , , 

Priest of Amen, Userhat, son of the noble Adehmes. 
The noble, overseer of the granaries of Amen, over¬ 
seer of all the seals of the temple of Amen, the 

scribe Anen, T.V. . 

D.O. Scribe Ma....; the widow Hui. 

D.O. Priest of Amen, Amenemhat, T.V. 

D O. Scribe of the temple of Set, Nefer-mennu, 

’ TV. 















funereal cones and other inscriptions. 


74 - 

75 - 
76. 

77 - 

78. 


79 - 

80. 

81. 

82. 

83 - 

84. 


85 - 


D.O. Scribe of the accounts of bread of the lord of 
both lands, Usi, T.V. 

D.O. Scribe of the fields, Nebmehti. 

D.O. Scribe of the treasury of Amen, Men. 

p O.commander of the police, Simut, TV. 

0 . Royal scribe, the fan bearer on the .... of the 
lord of both lands, Surer (temp. Amenhotep 111 -, 
statue in London, No. 123). 

Scribe of the royal bread, Piaa; his wife, the widow 

Netemt. „ , , , _ 

Scribe of the granary .... of the bread, Pa-amen. 

The chief (priest) of Mentu, lord of An (Hermonthis), 
the scribe, Kanekht. 

Priest of Amen.Ra-aa-kheper . . . Pasu. 

D Overseer of the royal harem, Us-ha, T.V., son 01 

the judge Neh, T.V. born of Anpu. 

D.O. Scribe of the works of the palace of Ra-ma-neb 
(Amenhotep III.) on the west of Thebes, Anhui- 
mes, T.V. before the great god. 

D.O. Fourth prophet of Amen, Menthuemhat, I.V., 
his wife (see Turin No. 3425, where Ultarenset is 
his son’s mother) loving him, royal relation, the 


widow, Utarenset, T.V. 

86. D.O. Priest, scribe of treasury of Amen, Userhat; son 

of the scribe of the treasury Nebhebu. 

87. D.O. Overseer of the fields of Amen, head sealer of 

the jars of Amen, priest, Nefer-kha T.V. 

88. O. Chief reporter of the lord of both lands, praiser of 

t the good god, near his heart (?) Menkh-ra. 

89 O. Chief (?) priest of Amen, director of the palace, 

° Amenabt, T.V. His sister loving him, chantress 

of Amen, the widow Tamnt. 

90 Fourth prophet of Amen, royal scribe (?), Menthuem¬ 

hat, T.V. His chief son, of his body, prophet of 
Amen, royal relation, Nesptah; born of the widow 


Neskhon(su). 

91. Fourth prophet of Amen, noble of the town, Men¬ 

thuemhat, T.V. (His) son, prophet of Amen, 
scribe of the drink offerings (?) of the temple of 
Amen, noble of the town, Nes-ptah, T.V. 

92. Royal offering to Osiris, chief of the west (?) may he 

give the sweet breath of the north wind, .... for 
the ka of the scribe Rema. 

93. The hereditary noble, the chancellor, the sole com¬ 

panion, beloved, the true (real) royal relation, 
overseer of the great house, guardian of the god, 
Abaa.beloved of the god the living 


Horus. 

94.the chanter of Amen, Meru-f. 

95. O. Scribe of the festivals (?) of Amen, Tahuti-nefer; 

his name Seturti (?) T.V., born of the scribe 
Messu, T.V. 

96. The chancellor, overseer of the prophets of the south 

and north ; high prophet of Amen, Meri; overseer 
of the temple of Amen, overseer of the granaries of 
Amen, Meri; overseer of the treasury of silver, and 
overseer of the treasury of gold, of Amen, Meri; 
overseer of the cattle of Amen, Meri. 

97. The chancellor, chief prophet of Amen, Meri; overseer 

of the prophets of the districts of the south and 
north, Meri; overseer of the fields of Amen, 
overseer of the granaries of Amen, Meri; (keeper 
of) all seals in the palace of the king, life, wealth, 
and health to him ! Meri; overseer of the cattle of 


Amen, Meri. 

98. Overseer of the cattle of Amen, guardian of the 
temple of Amen, body-servant of the good god 
(the king), scribe of the food of the lord of both 


99. 


100. 

101. 


102. 

103. 

104. 

105. 

106. 

107. 


lands, Ra-men-kheper-senb, T.V. before the good 

Son of the living Horus, the noble, great chief of the 
Mashuash .... overseer of the prophets of Ba-neb- 
dadu (Mendes) .... born of the widow Shapen 

(ast?) T.V. . . . , T 

(He) says (I am) devoted to thee, Osins; (he) says (I 

am) devoted to thee, Anpu. 

D.O. The hereditary chief, chancellor, sole com- 
panion, .... of the lord of both lands, high 
prophet of Amen, Amenemhat. 

Overseer of the-of Khem, and of Isis, Amen¬ 

hotep, T.V. His sister, the widow Kedtmert. 
Royal offering to Osiris, lord of eternity .... chiei ot 
the police? .... 


priests, Ser-ka. 

Governor of the city, Tetamekh. 

Overseer of the serfs, Ai. 

The lord of both lands Ra-user-ma-mer-amen, happi¬ 
ness and life, lord of the diadems Ra-messu-hak-an 
(Ramessu III.) every day (perpetually) the good 
god, living. 


37. It now remains to notice the other inscriptions 
on PI. xxi. The stela of Mes (fig. 1) is of interest, 
as very few notices of the two earlier kings named 
on it are to be found elsewhere. First, there comes 
after the priesthood to gods, the mention of the 
priesthood to the king Tahutmes I.; then to an 
earlier king Tau a a, apparently the second of that 
group of Rasekenen kings, though slightly modified 
from the form in the Abbott papyrus; and then is 
the priesthood to Karnes, who thus appears to be the 
earliest of these three. The usually accepted relation 
of Kames, as husband of queen Aah hotep, and father 
of Aahmes I., seems to be based on the jewellery 
found with that queen; as, however, that find pro¬ 
bably came from the first plunderings of the treasure 
of the Deir el Bahri cave, the collocation of the 
objects is of no historical significance. This tablet 
is of good work in fine Theban limestone; I purchased 
it at Thebes, and exchanged it to M. Grebaut, who 
wished for it at the Bulak Museum. The other 
objects on this plate, not being required at Bulak, I 
have brought home. 

The statuette of Sebekemsaf (fig. 2) is in fine 
grained dark green basalt; it is of heavy, cold, work, 
but not badly finished; the style is much like some 
figures from Ekhmim, but the mention of Khonsu 
makes it more likely that this belonged to Thebes, 
where I purchased it. The height of the figure is 
ill inches to the broken neck. This is of interest, 
as monuments of this king are rare; the only other 
remains of his being the statue at Bulak from 
Abydos, the rock tablets at Hamamat, his ushabti- 
box of wood, and his heart-scarab. 

The statuette of Tahuti (fig. 3) is a small enveloped 


D 















26 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


squatting figure in a block form, headless, well cut in 
limestone. The stela of Mahu (fig. 4) is in sandstone. 
Both purchased at Thebes. The torso of a figure of 
Horuta (fig. 5) is finely carved in the hardest and 
closest black basalt, the piece from the waist to the 
neck being 8£ inches high. It names “ the devoted 
to king Nekau (who is like the sun), the hereditary 
noble, superintendent of the gate of the mountains, 
Horuta.” He states that he was sent with the 
workmen to some place (the name unfortunately 
lost) to “ make great obelisks of granite, and monu¬ 
ments all of basalt and granite.” Horuta seems 
therefore to have been the chief quarrymaster to 
Necho. I purchased this at Memphis; as also the 
piece of a fine alabaster canopic jar of Li (fig. 6) 
with the inscription complete. At Tell el Amarna, 
amongst other little things, I got the two limestone 
stamps, one of Khunaten (fig. 7), and the other of 
queen Thi (fig. 10); also a slab of limestone with 
the lower part of the face of Khunaten of the 
finest work, and a small headless and kneeless 
figure of one of his little daughters, well carved 
in sandstone. At Thebes, an Arab dealer sold me 
a fine green glazed scarab of queen Amenardas 
(or Ameniritis) and king Kashta, bearing traces 
of gilding; and with it a piece of a dark brown 
limestone ushabti of Amenardas (fig. 8); only one 
(in the Louvre) is hitherto known. This suggests 
that her tomb has been lately re-entered; its place 
is unknown to Europeans. The little base of a 
head-rest (?) from Thebes, in limestone, names the 
sister of Amenhotep I., Amenmert, who is only 
known otherwise in the tomb of Ken at Thebes, 
and on the sarcophagus of Butehamen now at 
Turin (Wiedemann, Geschichte, 314, 317). The 
fragment of a standing statuette which I got at 
Memphis is of interest; it is made of the finest 
light green stoneware, though cracked and spoilt 
in the baking, or rather incipient fusion, which it 
has received in the manufacture. The work is 
very delicate and detailed both in the dress and 
the anatomy of the knees; and from its style, as 
well as the colour, it seems very hard to assign 
it to any age but the IVth century B.C., the 
nearest parallel being the green stoneware of 
Hakar. Though the second cartouche is lost, we 
can hardly err in attributing this to the king 
Amen-rut, the fragment of whose sarcophagus is 
at Berlin, and whose crystal vase is in the Louvre; 
no other king since the XXIInd dynasty was 
named Ra-user-mat. These cartouches have been 
variously attributed to Urdamen of the XXVth 
dynasty, and to Amyrtaeos of the XXVIIIth. 


But now the style of this fragment strongly, shows 
that Lepsius and Wiedemann are right in the 
attribution to Amyrtaeos; since it would be scarcely 
possible to assign this piece to the VHth century 
B.C. (Urdamen); while, on the contrary, it precisely 
accords with the style of the IVth century under 
Amyrtaeos. 


CHAPTER VI. 

THE PYRAMIDS OF DAHSHUR. 

38. On the fiat limestone plateau which borders 
the Nile valley, there stand the four pyramids of 
Dahshur, at about 17 miles south of Cairo. Like 
all the other pyramids they are on the western side 
of the stream; but the larger two are placed rather 
farther back into the desert than is usual, being about 
a mile and a half from the cultivated land. The 
lesser two are lower down, on more broken ground, 
which was not a favourable site for great structures. 
The desert in this region is much cut up by shallow 
valleys all along its edge; and its surface is not of 
barren rock, as it is in many other places, but con¬ 
sists, for some considerable depth, of marly insoluble 
remains, probably derived from the limestone which 
has been removed by solution. This material, how¬ 
ever, has been long beneath water, and re-deposited 
by water, as the flints in it are broken small and 
completely rounded, in place of being in large nodules 
or sheets. This bed is analogous, in short, to English 
clayey gravels ; just as the limestone with flints be¬ 
neath it is analogous to chalk, though stratigraphi- 
cally of a rather higher level, belonging to the middle 
Eocene* This material was not favourable for a 
foundation ; but all the pyramids of this region (so 
far as we know), are based on a layer of pavement 
placed on the cleared gravel, and not sunk down 
to a rock bed. 

I had hoped to have completely surveyed all of 
the Dahshur pyramids this year; but the long delay 
in obtaining the necessary order from the govern¬ 
ment to permit me to remove the broken chips, 
prevented my attempting to examine the two lesser 
pyramids. And on clearing the rubbish about the 
northern large pyramid, the ancient construction 

* I may as well note here my finding a large palaeolithic 
pointed flint, well worn by river action, on a spur of the desert 
hills about six miles west of Esneh, and about 200 feet above 
the present river level. This shows that the high level of the 
water in the Nile valley, of which there are such abundant 
signs, was not at all remote, geologically speaking. 






THE PYRAMIDS OF DAHSHUR. 


27 


was found to have been so much destroyed that it 
would need much work to find any traces of the original 
base; this, therefore, was also impossible for me to 
survey in the short time I had left. The southern 
large pyramid, and the little one adjoining it, are 
therefore all that are here described, and in several 
respects this pair are the most interesting and im¬ 
portant of the group. The two lesser pyramids, 
though originally appearing like the others encased 
in fine limestone, were in their bulk all of crude 
brick; the limestone only now remains in chips 
around, and a few blocks buried at the bases, and 
these pyramids are always now known as the brick 
pyramids. It is important to see in the southern 
one that it was not built by concretion, or enlarge¬ 
ment by successive coats, but, on the contrary, in 
flat courses. This is shown by the varied colours 
of the different batches of bricks, some blacker, some 
greyer, some browner; and where deep gashes have 
been made in the side of the mass, the varied courses 
may be seen extending into it in horizontal lines. 
Hence the pyramid was begun of its full size of 
base, and gradually completed, course by course; 
agreeing thus with what was certainly the system 
in building the large pyramids of Gizeh (see 
Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, pp. 163-5.) At 
the northern large pyramid, which is of stone, I 
had made a triangulation around it while waiting 
for permission to clear the chips away; but as my 
remaining time would not suffice to find the remains 
of the original base, this work was useless, and all 
I could do was to observe the present slope of 
the rough surfaces of the core masonry. This 
appears to be on the N. 44° 42', E. 44 0 32', S. 44 0 30', 
W. 44 41', mean 44° 36' ± 3'. Hence it is clearly 
not 45 ; and the only likely rule for its construction 
seems to be a slope of 7 on a base of 5, as this 
would require an angle of 44 0 34' 40", which is within 
the uncertainties of this pyramid. Vyse states this 
as 43° 36' 11", apparently just a degree in error. 

39. The southern large pyramid is remarkable for 
being built in two different slopes, the upper part 
flatter than the lower, and also for still retaining a 
large part of its original fine stone casing. It is built 
of stone throughout, as also is the lesser one adjoin¬ 
ing it, and the peribolus wall around them. To 
what reign it is to be assigned is very uncertain. 
The similarity of some points of construction to 
those at Gizeh lead one to suppose that it is of 
the IVth dynasty. The work is certainly far better 
than that of the Vth and Vlth dynasties at Sakhara; 
but it might belong to the fine period of the Xllth 


dynasty. In favour of this latter view we may 
notice, in the ruins of the temples which adjoin 
the brick pyramids here, that the columns were 
like those in the tombs of the Xllth dynasty at 
Beni Hasan, and those of the same age at Hawara; 
the fragments show them to have been composed 
of six colonnets clustered together, in all about 27 
inches across. On one of the blocks of the south 
stone pyramid is apparently a portion of a cartouche, 
most of which has been dressed away (see inscrip¬ 
tions, No. 703); and among all possible names this 
certainly would correspond only to Ra-ma-(kheru), 
Amenemhat IV. 

40. The general method of the survey was like that 
which I made around the pyramids of Gizeh six < 
years before.® A triangulation was formed around the 
pyramid on fixed station marks, and from these 
shorter measurements were made to the ancient 
points of construction, by lineal measure or smaller 
triangulations. As, however, only one pyramid and 
its surrounding parts were to be surveyed, it was not 
desirable to encounter a large triangulation, exten¬ 
sive enough to form a thoroughly stiff series of 
sufficiently large triangles all around the pyramid. 

A better result could be obtained from the same 
amount of work by rendering each side independent 
of the observations on the other sides; or, in fact, 
by measuring each side separately. As the rise 
of the rubbish on each face quite prevented the 
corners from being visible from one another, a point 
was therefore chosen so near to each corner as only 
just to be visible from the similar points at the other 
corners; in short, the least square visible from corner 
to corner, EFGH on the plan, PI. xxiv. Then to 
determine the length of each of the sides, a base 
line was measured along the flattest and most suit¬ 
able piece of ground at each corner, EJ, FK, GL, 
HM ; and the angles were observed subtended by 
these bases, as seen from the other end of each side, 
EFJ, FGK, GHL, HEM. These secondary points, 

J, K, L, M, not only served thus to ascertain the 
lengths of the sides of the square, E, F, G, H ; but 
they were also so placed as to triangulate well with 
the corner of this square, for fixing the station 
marks placed at the corners of the pyramid itself, 

A, B, C, D. Thus altogether there were three first- 
class checks in the set of observations: first, the sum of 
the four corners of the square, EFGH, must be 360°; 
second, the length of its north side checks the length 
of the south side, the angles being known; third, 
the east and west sides check each other likewise. 
The actual adjustments required to reconcile the 




28 


A SEASON IN EGYPT 


observations, are an average change of 2" on each 
of the azimuths observed along the sides; an average 
change in the angles of subtention of the measured 
bases of 1*2" on each azimuth; or else an equal 
change of ’14 inch on each of the measured bases, 
which is equal to the effect of 7 0 cent, of tempera¬ 
ture. Or, if no such corrections be made, the whole 
discrepancies of the lengths of the sides of the square 
amount to an average of *6 inch on 9000 inches. 
The results of the main triangulation may therefore 
be trusted to within half-an-inch. The surrounding 
points of the peribolos and the small pyramid were 
fixed by minor triangulation from the main stations ; 
the lines of this triangulation are not shown on the 
plan, in order to avoid confusion. The details of the 
nature of the remains at each point will be stated 
further on. 

For fixing the azimuth of all the triangulations a 
set of four observations were made with the small 
theodolite on Polaris, with as many on Sirius to give 
the sidereal time. The result for time showed a 
mean variation of 6 seconds in the observation, or 
of 50" in the angle between Polaris and Sirius. The 
probable error of the resulting azimuth is rather 
under T; an amount of error due to the great 
difficulties of illuminating the field so as to see the 
spider lines and the stars together, and the reading 
the circle by candlelight. We had also to keep our 
lights shrouded as closely as we could, as my men 
were much afraid of attracting some roving thieves 
from the Fayum road which passes these pyramids; 
and the examples we had seen of the doings of 
these gentry were not re-assuring. 

The instruments used were those already described 
in the Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, chapter 
ii., as having been used for that survey. The 
main theodolite was the very fine one of Gambay’s, 
with io-inch circle, verniers to 3", and powerful 
microscopes. It was always centered over the 
stations by transiting with two small theodolites, set 
up about twenty feet from it at right angles; these 
were duly levelled, and pointed to the station; then 
they were elevated to point to the large theodolite, 
which was slid about on its stand, until the cone of 
its circle was bisected by both of the small theodo¬ 
lites. The short distance triangles were done with 
the small theodolites of 4 and 5 inch circles.' The 
base lengths were all measured by a steel tape in 
catenary suspension, as that is by far the most 
accurate way of working in the field. Stones were 
placed to receive marks at each 100 feet of length ; 
the tape, held at one end by a stand with a hook, 
and by a lever weight at the other, was kept at a 


constant tension, the stands which held it at each 
end being temporarily weighted down by blocks of 
stone. Then I walked from end to end alternately 
five or six times, reading the station marks on to 
the tape, and so taking the length between the 
pair of marks. When they were ascertained, the 
tape was moved on another length, and 100 feet 
more read similarly. The readings, apart from 
gusts of wind, seldom varied more than i-50th 
inch, and were often the same i-iooth inch through¬ 
out. The manner in which the tape would be 
shortened by a puff of wind, and then spring back 
to the same reading again, was a good proof of its 
delicacy of action and freedom from friction on its 
supports. The ends being at six inches from the 
ground, the length of 100 feet generally needed 
two supports in order to suspend it clear of the 
ground; with only one support in the middle, the 
shortening due to the catenary mode of suspension 
is but -04 inch, and with two supports this is re¬ 
duced to - 93, on the whole length of 1200 inches, 
with the standard tension of iolbs. The small 
corrections are easily applied for catenary shortening, 
for difference of level in the supports throughout, 
and for temperature; the last was always read 
with three thermometers, one facing the sun, one 
facing the ground, and one in the shade, and the 
best circumstances for work are a cloudy sky and 
gentle hot wind, at about 90° to ioo° F. 

41. The south pyramid, according to this survey, 
was originally of the following size and shape, 
upon its pavement surface :— 

N. 7463*2 inches —10' 35" (N. of E.) 

? 

- 13 ' 53" (N. of E.) 

— 3' 8" (W. of N.) 


The construction of the base differs much from 
that of the pyramids of Gizeh, owing to the absence 
of rock foundation; yet the principle is the same. 
The level which was intended as the apparent base, 
or pavement level, is fully fixed by the fine white 
mortared pavement which was found outside the 
place of the stone paving, at the E.S.E. and S.S.W., 
as well as by the pavement found in situ at the 
N.N.E., E.N.E., and N.W. No doubt therefore can 
exist on this point. At the N.W. corner, which is 
the best preserved, there lies a large socket block 
in the ground; its level is 13 inches below the 
pavement, part of which there still overlies it. This 
socket block bears a sloping bed on its upper face. 


E. 7453‘4 » 

S. ? 

W. 7460*3 M 


Mean 7459*0 






THE PYRAMIDS OF DAHSHUR. 


2 9 


as all the bedding of the courses of this pyramid 
is inclined inwards $° or 10°. This bed is well 
dressed, having of course a slight re-entering angle 
along its diagonal, where the sloping bed of the 
north side cuts that of the west; Outside of this 
sloping surface it falls away slightly and runs about 
level, to receive a level pavement outside of the 
pyramid. The block is over 10 feet x \\ feet, with 
another adjoining it, both together forming this 
socket bed (see section in corner of plan, pi. xxiv.). 
The slant face of the casing started directly from 
the edge of the sloping socket bed, and must thus 
have been covered over its face by the pavement 
to a depth of 13 inches. This is proved by the 
remaining block of pavement still on the socket 
floor, having a sloping line of dressing on its edge 
rising at the pyramid angle, in the plane of the 
casing. And by the analogy of the great pyramid 
casing and sockets, this is just what we should 
expect. Probably the corner casing stone sunk 
down below the pavement level into the socket, 
as otherwise there would be no object in projecting 
the slope below the pavement, in the manner in 
which we find it marked down the side of the 
vertical paving joint. A similar slanting draft is 
to be seen on a paving block in the S.W. socket. 
The pyramid therefore was based on a horizontal 
pavement, the edge-blocks of which were turned 
upward at a slope of 5° to io° all round, to bed 
the sloping casing upon; while at the corners large 
blocks were sunk to form a similar sloping bed 
for the corner stones to rest upon, below the level 
of the others. The angle of the bedding of the 
sockets and pavement is, N.W. 7° 7' and 6° 48', 
N.N.E. 13 0 27', E.N.E. 6° 41', S.E. 6° 44': mean 6° 50', 
omitting the N.N.E. of 13° 27', or 2 x 6° 43'. In the 
upper parts of the casing the bed varies more, 
being at N.W. f 25', N. 8° 35', N.E. 5° 36', E.N.E. 
8° 42', 6° 41', E. 7 0 3', E.S.E. 6° 16', S.S.E. io° 56', 
S. 6° 22', S.S.W. io° 8', W.S.W. 9 0 42', 8° 41', 
W.N.W. 6° 8'. There seems to be no regularity in 
these angles ; the stones appear to have been simply 
piled on, regardless of exact parallelism of their 
bed-surfaces; the bedding angle varied anyhow, 
and the face was dressed uniform afterwards. 

The stone pavement projected but little from 
the pyramid, perhaps 20 or 30 inches; beyond that 
the gravel ground was dressed down to a hard face, 
and a thick coat of mortar, finished with a fine 
white surface, was laid upon it, to form an ap¬ 
parent continuation of the pavement. How far 
this extended I did not discover. The actual points 
of the original construction, on which the recovery 


of the size of the pyramid depends, are as follows. 
At the N.W. the original socket with sharp edge 
to the bed; and pavement upon it, showing the 
pavement level. At the N.E. the socket is entirely 
destroyed; but the casing bed was found at about 
100 inches from it along each side. The actual 
casing edge was destroyed ; but by the casing face 
remaining some feet higher up, the angle of the 
casing, and the angle of the bed, the original 
position of the edge could be fixed. At the S.E. 
the corner is destroyed; and although I sunk several 
pits along the E. side, no trace of the stone pave¬ 
ment could be found. The length of the S. side 
and azimuth of the E. side is therefore not re¬ 
covered. This corner has suffered far more than 
others, and the casing is destroyed for nearly half¬ 
way up the pyramid; hence it is impossible to re¬ 
stone the original edge, unless some block of it 
should be found by more extensive digging. The 
pits here need to be sunk some fifteen feet through 
a mass of loose chips and blocks; retaining walls 
have to be carefully built up; and so tender is the 
ground that it is dangerous to strike with a pick 
for fear of bringing it all down ; each stone has to 
be gently pulled out by hand, On the S. side a 
part of the S.E. socket block remains, 34 inches 
below the paving level; and the edge of this, re¬ 
duced for the slant upward of the casing from that 
level, gives the point for the original base. At the 
W. end of the S. side no part of the original base 
could be found, although several pits were sunk; 
here, however, the casing remained down to within 
280 inches of the usual level of the pavement, but 
only 272 above the mortar pavement remaining 
near that; the difference of 8 inches being the error 
of levelling the pavement. This point is therefore 
carried down to the mortar pavement level, at the 
angle observed on the face, in order to give the 
base line. The S.W. corner is destroyed; but part 
of the pavement remains on the W. side, with a 
draft line on its vertical joint, running down from 
the edge in continuation of the casing slope, like 
that on the edge of the N.W. paving block. 

The levels observed, or computed from the bed, for 
the base on the pavement are, N.N.E. —1-4, E.N.E.— 
2-6, E.S.E (mortared pavement) o, S.S.W. (mortared 
pavement) + 8, N.W. + 2: and the size stated for 
the base is in relation to its actual pavement, and not 
to a theoretical true level. Other points are, socket 
block in S.E. pit —34, socket edge N.W. — 11. 

42. Proceeding now to the casing, the lower part 
is about 70 inches thick at a minimum, while at 





3 ° 


A SEASON IN EG YET 


the top it is but two feet thick, and the corners 
nine inches high. The angle of it varies a good 
deal. The lower half, up to the change of angle, is 
convex, being in nearly all parts steeper below and 
flatter above; the difference is as much as T 36' in 
one place, and only about the N. and N.E. is the 
variation not to be noticed. In consequence of the 
face thus curving over up the E. side, while rising 
straight at the N.E., the N.E. corner of casing, where 
the change of angle takes place, appears to stick 
out unduly some 20 inches beyond the rest of the 
face at that level. The slope of the E. face at 
the S. end, where projected down to the N.E. corner, 
is some 60 inches outside the face there. The 
angles of the casing were observed by setting up 
the theodolite, so that its telescope was exactly 
in the plane of the casing; and then reading the 
difference of angle between the sight up the casing, 
and the level position of the telescope. The actual 
angles of the lower part of the faces all round are 
N.N.W. 55 0 23', near W. 54° 59', N.N.E. 55° 2 ', 
E.N.E. ss° i2', E. 55° 20', E.S.E. 54° 46', S.S.e! 
54 ° 40', S.S.W. 54° 38', W.S.W. 55° 2', W.N.W. 
55 4 > mean 55 1; while the upper parts of the 

faces are N.N.W. 54° 59', N.N.E. 55° 2', E.N.E 
55 ° 12', E. 53° 44', S.S.E. 54° 1', S.S.W. 54° 38', 
W.S.W. 54° o', W.N.W. 54° 36', mean 54° 31'; or, 
omitting those parts where the lower angle is carried 
up, the angle of the upper parts is 54° 12'. The 
upper slope of the pyramid is much less steep, 
but shows a similar convexity; at the N.N.W. it 
is 43° 2' high up, and 43° 19' lower; the N.N.E. 
is 43° 24', the W. 43° o', or perhaps 42° 39' higher 
up. The mean of all is 43° 5'. 

43. The height of the pyramid may be approxi¬ 
mately calculated from the angles. The place of the 
N.E. cornel, where the change of slope occurs, was 
triangulated, and it is 1301-1 from the edge of the N. 
face, and 1288 7 from the edge of the E. face, measur¬ 
ing horizontally. This difference shows a still larger 
variation than do the angles, as observed from below; 
the vertical height by the N. at 55° 2' appearing as 
1860-5, and by the E. at 55° 12', 1854-2, mean 1857 
inches. Assuming the line of change in the face to 
be level all round, the height of the upper part will 
be 2277 inches : the whole, therefore, 4134 inches. 
A curious feature of the casing is the frequent letting 
in of small pieces of stone to fill up damaged parts; 
the acute lower edges of the stones, and sometimes 
the vertical joints, are cut away to a depth of a couple 
of inches, and a slip of stone inserted to make good 
accidental injuries. 


44. The entrance is of special interest, as showing 
the evident signs of a flap door of stone, which 
turned on a horizontal axis. The joint holes in 
the sides of the passage, and the cut-away in the 
roof show this; but as I have fully described them 
in the Pyramids and Temples, the account need 
not be repeated. Within the stone door was also 
a wooden one, on a vertical hinge. The position 
of the entrance is not, as in the Gizeh pyramids, 
on one side of the middle, but in the mid, line. 
The middle of the pyramid being at 3731 6 from 
either end, the axis of the passage is at 3731-0 
from the E. side, or •6 inch east of the mid line. 
The irregularities of the form, by the varying angle 
of the sides, will far more than cover this minute 
difference; and we may say that the entrance is 
as exactly in the middle of the pyramid as that can 
be defined. As the roof is 352-3 inside the line 
of the base horizontally, the floor will be 3277; 
and as'the casing angle was observed as 55° io' 
at the door, this will be 47ro above the pavement; 
or 468-0, if the angle be 55° o', as shown by the rest 
of the face. The azimuth of the passage is +13J', 
or that amount east of the true north. There is 
a very remarkable dislocation in the line of the 
passage; the floor and roof, in their outward course, 
rapidly turn upward at a steeper angle, and then 
suddenly drop back to the former line. The 
amount of change, in inches, seems far more 
than could be produced by any settlement of such 
solid masonry; and yet there is a fissure in the 
masonry at that point. The angle of the passage, 
far below the dislocation, is 26° 20', close to the 
point it rises to 2 f 53', and at the mouth it is 
28° 22'. The passage is choked at the bottom, 
so that the inner chambers are inaccessible at 
present. 

45. The small pyramid to the south of the great 
one is clearly connected with it; the peribolos includes 
both together, the position is exactly symmetric with 
the large pyramid (the line joining the centres being 
inclined -18' 52"), and the distance between the 
pyramids is apparently 100 cubits (2055-4 at N.E., 
2044-2 at N.W. corner). In seems not unlikely that 
the lesser pyramid is the tomb of the wife or daughter 
of the king who was buried in the greater. The 
dimensions of this pyramid are— 


N. 

2065 8 inches. 

+ 4 ' 

51"- 

E. 

2064-7 

II 

-2 i' 

IO . 

S. 

2062-4 

II 

+ 3' 

2 . 

W. 

2065-7 

II 

—27' 

30 . 

Mean 

2064-6 inches. 

—14' 

8 . 

Mean diff. 

1*1 

II 

IO' 

12 . 






THE PYRAMIDS OF DAHSHUR. 


3 i 


This is certainly intended for 100 cubits of 20-646 
±005 inches. The actual points recovered of this 
pyramid are: — N.N.W., casing in situ weathered 
somewhat, but still fairly defined, as well as the 
pavement; N.N.E., casing gone, but a front edge 
clearly defined on the pavement; E.N.E., a line on 
the pavement, which is similar to one at 55 inches 
inside of the N.N.E. edge, and which was therefore 
supposed at the time to have been 55 inches inside 
the E. side, but which is now seen, by the accordance 
of the above measurements, to be really the line of 
the E. side itself; outside of this line the paving is 
destroyed; E.S.E., casing in situ on the pavement; 
S.S.E., line on pavement; S.W. corner, edge of slop¬ 
ing bed on pavement; verified by W.S.W., casing 
in situ over pavement; W.N.W., casing in situ 
over pavement. Thus it will be seen'that in most 
parts a course of casing, more or less destroyed 
by weathering, still remains in the debris around 
this pyramid. The casing does not seem to have 
been sunk into sockets at the corners, but to have 
been bedded on the pavement with a slightly sloping 
bed. The angle of the casing on a good block at 
the E.S.E. is 44 0 34'; and on a worse example, 
45° 3'; no other stone was in sufficiently good 
condition to be worth measuring. The height was 
therefore 2034 inches. This is probably the same 
angle as the North Stone pyramid, which I observed 
as 44 0 36' on its core masonry. The entrance to 
this pyramid is blocked up with rubbish. The 
pavement around the pyramid seems to form a sort 
of narrow plinth to it at the N.W. corner; it is there 
25 inches wide on the N., and 29 on the W., with 
a space of mere sand and rubbish between it and the 
peribolos wall. 

46. The foundations of the peribolos wall around 
these pyramids is well constructed of roughish blocks; 
these probably supported a fine stone wall above. 
The entrance happens to be remarkably well pre¬ 
served, the east side of the gateway being still 18 
inches high. This shows fine work and the best quality 
of limestone; the outer and inner faces of the wall 
have a slight batter. The form is' shown below the 
plan on PI. xxiv. On the outer side are two recesses 
for the hinges of the doors, with socket holes 12 
inches "deep; the mark is clear on the side of gate¬ 
way where the door post wore against it in turning, 
and this suggests that the door remained in use 
for some length of time before it was dismantled. 
The doorway is 113 inches wide, the hinge recesses 
5-5 wide and 47 deep, the width of the gates being 
thus 124 inches or 6 cubits. The wall is 8o - 8 thick, 


and the breadth of the flat pilaster at the side 
of the gate is 68-5 inches. The axis of tile gateway 
is 2028 6 from the outer side of the east wall. The 
whole of the large square is— 


N. side 11755-7 inches -4' 34" 

E - » 11 753"5 " - i6'4o" 

S. n 11757-6 11 - 38'5o"? 

W. n 11772-9? 11 -16'8" 


or 11757 if the inner face be followed. 
The points found along it being the N.W. corner 
outside; the N.E. corner outside; the S.E. corner 
inside and outside; the outside at the turn south 
by the small pyramid; the S.E. corner by that; 
the S.W. corner by that could not be found, and 
seems entirely destroyed; the N.W. corner by that 
both inside and outside; the main S.W. corner is 
lost, and a point found on the S. side was not 
well fixed, so the S. side is here prolonged from 
the N.W. of the small pyramid in a line from the 
S.E. corner of the great square; this is not satis¬ 
factory however in the result, as it gives a length 
of the W. side very different to that of the others, 
unless the inner face of the wall be followed; a 
point was fixed also on the W. side. 

The distance from the large pyramid to the outside 
of the peribolos is— 

N.N.E. 2139-8 E.N.E. 2122-0 

E.S.E. ? S.S.E. 2159-5 

S.S.W. 2155-5 W.S.W. 21427 

W.N.W. 2170-7 N.N.W. 2153-5 

The distance from the small pyramid to the 
outside is— 

E.N.E. 300-5, E.S.E. 289-2, S.S.E. 326-8, N.N.W. 273. 

The thickness of the peribolos wall is, at gate¬ 
way, fine stone upper wall, 8o-8; rough wall at 
E.S.E. 100; at S.S.E., 106; further, 104; W. of 
small pyramid, 88; S.S.W., 120. From the front 
of the gateway a road runs N.E. at an azimuth 
of +54° 41'; on reaching the edge of the plateau, 
about a hundred yards from the gate, it turns 
more to the east, and runs down a gentle slope 
into a valley towards the river. The road has 
been all of fine white limestone, but only a part 
of one edge was found in situ. 

47 . It now remains to observe what were the 
ideas of the architect in designing the two pyramids. 
Firstly, the large pyramid base of 7459- o±2’2 
inches, is 360 cubits of 20-72 ±'006, the ordinary 
Egyptian cubit; while the base of the lesser pyramid 
is 2064-6^-5, or 100 cubits of 20-646^-005. The 
clear space around the pyramid was also loo cubits; 
it averages 2i49’idh4'3 to the outer side of the 
foundation of the wall, and deducting 8o'8, the 




3 2 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


thickness of the upper wall as preserved at the 
gate, and ri the distance of the gate-face inside 
the line of foundation from N.E. to N.W. corners, 
there is 2 o 67±4 or ioo cubits of 2062^.04. Thus 
it is clear that the wall is merely an added feature 
to the pyramid, and not made in any round numbers 
in itself, as its outside comes to 568 cubits. The 
idea of the gateway position seems to be to place 
it so as to look southward, just clear of the east 
face of the pyramid. 

In height the change of slope occurs at 1857 
inches from the pavement, or 90 cubits of 20'63, 
and the upper part is 2277 inches high, or no 
cubits of 2070; thus the whole pyramid was 200 
cubits high. 

The angles of slope at the lower half of the 
larger pyramid is 55°T low down, and 54°36' above 
that. This seems as if planned on a rise of 10 
with a base of 7, or one cubit three palms vertical for 
every cubit horizontal; such a slope is 55°o , 29". 
If so, the base of this part will be 63 cubits for the 
90 cubits vertical. The upper part being at 43°5', 
seems to be planned on a rise of 14 on a base 
of 15, or a cubit vertical for a cubit and two digits 
horizontal; such a slope is 43 °i' 33"- The sma11 
pyramid is 44 0 34', and the northern large pyramid 
is 44°36'; these are close to 45 0 , but yet seem distinct; 
and a slope 7 long on a base of 5, or one cubit of 
slope on 5 palms horizontal, gives an angle of 
44°34'40". We see thus that all these three angles 
are very closely explained by simple ratios; and 
further, that these ratios all involve the division 
of the cubit in the usual Egyptian way, with 7 
palms. 

The errors of workmanship are much greater than 
those of the Great or Second Pyramid of Gizeh, 
but rather less than that of the third pyramid. But 
the errors of angle are the most conspicuous; the 
sides being far more truly parallel than they are 
square to one another. This, as well as the departure 
from true north, shows a much lower capability’ for 
angular measurement than in the Great Pyramid 
of Gizeh. 

The cubit values given then by different parts 
are:— 

Large pyramid base, 3 60 cubits of 2072 ± -006. 

Small pyramid base, _ 100 11 20-646 ±005. 

Space around pyramid, 100 11 20-67+-04. 

Lower height of pyramid, 90 11 20-63. 

Upper height of pyramid, no u 20-70. 

Only the first two are really accurate data, and 
they give a mean cuibt of 20 - 68±'03, with which 
the other three examples well agree. 


The azimuth of the step pyramid of Sakkara 
was observed by eye on its rough core masonry, 
as pointing to parts of the S. pyramid of Dahshur. 
This resulted in showing it to be +4 *4 f° r 
and +4°28' for W. side; or mean 4°2i' E. of 
true N. 


CHAPTER VII. 

THE EARLIEST COLUMN. 

48. Behind one of the small pyramids at Gizeh, 
on the eastern side of the great pyramid, is the 
larger part of a fine tomb of a son of Khufu, 
named Khufu-kha-f. This is therefore of the begin¬ 
ning of the IVth dynasty, or within the first century 
of dateable remains in Egypt. The tomb is now 
heaped around with rubbish, which entirely covers 
its ancient doorways; and the visitor descends by 
jumping down into the outer chamber. This chamber 
has been considerably cut about in process of hav¬ 
ing an arched roof built into it, at about the time 
of the XXVIth dynasty. The tomb had evidently 
been partially despoiled before that, and was then 
refitted and completed for later use. The inner 
chamber has also had its walls continued up where 
broken, and a new roof put on; the new work 
being all plain stone, and the thin mortaring having 
run down over the old sculpture. On either side 
of a doorway in the inner chamber leading to the 
serdab, is a column in low relief, represented as 
supporting the lintel. This column is here care¬ 
fully reproduced on PI. xxv., by measurements taken 
from a paper squeeze. Its form is most striking when 
we consider that it belongs to the very first age 
of architecture, many centuries before the columns 
of Beni Hasan. Here is a well formed base, 
a slight taper of the column in rising from it, 
an astragal at the top, and a spreading capital 
which seems much like the prototype of the later 
lotus flower capitals. The whole of the members 
of a complete column are here, harmonious and well 
designed; and this is of a time when even the 
series of pyramids—the earliest known type of build¬ 
ing—was but beginning its course. 

49. What was the origin of this earliest column ? 
In the same tomb, among the various articles of 
luxury borne before the son of Khufu, is a stand 
containing two wine jars; they are of a beautiful 
form, with long spouts, probably of metal cut off flat 





THE EARLIEST COLUMN. 


33 


on the upper side of the mouth, and with little lids 
on the necks. Between these jars is the drinking 
bowl set on a stand,—just such a stand as is often 
found in early tomb furniture, carved in alabaster. 
Here is unmistakeably the form of our column and 
capital. The bowl on its stand had caught the eye 
of the architect, and there sprung into being the first 
complete column that we as yet have seen. The 
only modification to adopt the form to architecture, 
was the deepening of the lower torus for a base, and 
the straightening of the sides of the shaft; with 
these slight changes the column was complete; and 
to this day, after the cycles of architecture in all 
history, we are not radically beyond this model of 
the dawning period : even with all the ornamentation 
which has been lavished on columns, and all the con¬ 
tortions they have been forced into, it is a question 
whether any one could find a reasonable complaint if 
this type was used in a building of to-day. It would 
be difficult to find fault with its form, even after all 
the experience of the civilised world in the ages 
which have passed over it. 

50. That this beautiful type did not take deep 
root, we see by the curious but ugly capitals which 
support the roof of a rock tomb of the VIth dynasty, 
at Isbayda (PI. xxv.). Even at Beni Hasan, in the 
Xllth dynasty, there is no true capital, but only a 
square abacus placed flat on the shaft, or else the 
purely vegetable type of the bundle of lotus. For a 
true, well-defined capital we must descend to the 
XVIIIth or XIXth dynasty before we find anything 
comparable, as an architectural form, to the column 
of the son of Khufu. 

51. The diagrams of capitals from the Roman 
quarries at Gebel Abu Fodeh are of much interest as 
showing the methods of design. They have been 
published before, but inaccurately; and the present 
drawings are made from magnified photographs. 
The squares in the Hathor capital are half a cubit 
each, the cubit averaging 2074 from this. The lotus 
capital appears to have been laid out by a cubit and 
digits. The arrangement of it is, however, complex ; 
and so far as I can trace, the rules are as follows :— 
AB = AC . AD = AE. The curve of the everted edge 
at C is a quadrant. AF = FG = GE, each one-third 
of AD. What determines the base line H, I do not 
see. Bisect CH, and set off HJ = the half. From J 
draw a line to bisect the space AB on the line F. 
This forms the slope of the lower part of the capital. 
Join CJ, and the line cuts G line in the centre of an 
arc which forms the under edge of the everted lip. 


The purport of the circle near this I do not under¬ 
stand. So far, there is scarcely a break in the rules 
deducible from this. It should be noted that no lines 
whatever have been added to these drawings; only 
exactly such lines as could be seen in the originals, 
and in the photographs, are here marked. The 
reference letters are of course not in the original. 
These working drawings are lined out in red paint, 
on the clear walls of a subterranean quarry; and 
many painted graffiti of the first century A.D. show 
the period when they were doubtless executed. 


CHAPTER VIII. 

THE FAYUM RCAD. 

52. While taking a walk some nine miles into the 
desert behind Dahshur, for the purpose of noting the 
level of the country, and its nature in that unknown 
region, I there came across a cubical block of lime¬ 
stone ; and I observed, moreover, a track past it, and 
another block in the distance, also on the track. On 
enquiring of the Arabs on my return, they told me 
that all along the road to the Fayum from Sakkara, 
there were blocks of stone at intervals. I then on 
other occasions followed out this road from its 
beginning near Sakkara to one-third the distance to 
the Fayum; at that point I could not find any more 
way marks for a long space, and that being a walk of 
some 19 miles out and back, I could not get my men 
to go further, nor would they let me go out of 
their sight, considering the thievish character of the 
district. Some consideration must be shown for a 
native guard’s feelings, as he and his are liable for 
whatever befalls you while in his jurisdiction; and in 
Egypt, wherever you may go, you are in somebody’s 
charge, and that person will be seized, imprisoned, 
and plundered by the police if aught happens to you. 
I left therefore the two-thirds of the road which is 
beyond a walk out from Dahshur to be done at 
some time with regular camping out. What I have 
planned (see PI. xxvi) fully shows the nature of the 
road and its system of mensuration. I found, more¬ 
over, another road marked in a different way, by lines 
of gravel swept up on either side of it, and leading to 
the oasis of Ammon, or Siwa, or as the Arabs said, 
“ to Tunis.” In the plan all the details of these roads 
are fully entered ; but the hill shading is only a rough 
approximation, to show the character of the ground. 

S3- We will begin by following the Fayum road 

E 







34 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


from its north-eastern end (see PI. xxvi.). Close by 
the Mastaba Far’un, on rising up the side of a valley 
which runs some way into the desert, faint traces of 
two parallel lines of flints may be seen; these run 
straight across the plain of table land on which the 
pyramids stand, and up the ridge of desert hill. At 
the top of the ridge, about ninety feet south of the 
road, is the base of a small chamber (A), about five 
feet square; this is probably the lower part of a sentry 
box, from which to watch the road both ways, as it is 
on the nearest high point to the road, which naturally 
crosses the ridge at the lowest part. Further on, the 
road is lost in modern tracks, but is very plainly seen 
before reaching the bit of stone, B. It is here marked 
by two parallel ridges of pebbles swept up to either 
side; these ridges are generally about 5 ft. wide, 
and 1085 inches apart from crest to crest; this width 
is slightly more than is usual in the adjoining Oasis 
road, but, like that, it is doubtless intended for 50 
cubits or 1035 inches. A little way to the north of 
the road is a slight hollow, with much limestone and 
fossil wood about it; possibly foundations of a 
building. The parallel lines bordering the road 
come to an end on reaching the first of the regular 
way marks (C), a block of limestone with a socket 
cut in the top of it to receive a pillar; the form of 
this is shown restored in the outline of a 1000 cubit 
mark at the top of the plate. These base blocks or 
sockets are usually about 20 inches cube, and the 
most complete pillar yet found is 27 inches long 
and 9 inches square. Of socket C only two-thirds is 
left, and that tipped over on the side of a hollow in 
which it probably stood originally; many of these 
inarks have been dug around and disturbed. Socket 
D is but a half. Socket E is cracked in two, but 
complete. At F is a different arrangement; an 
oblong block 307x24-5 inches, and 18 high, has in 
its upper face a socket 23-0 x 11-3. This seems to 
have been for holding a stela, a cubit wide and half 
a cubit thick (20-6 X 10-3) such as we shall see later 
on. A fragment, perhaps of this stela, is lying about 
150 feet to the N.E. This form is restored at the 
top of the plate, as the “ schoenus mark.” There is a 
pit close to it on the N.N.E., and another about 45 
feet to the E.; these pits are about 15 feet wide, and 
apparently the result of digging. At G is a piece of 
a pillar, 8 X 8'8 inches, and 27 long, but broken. At 
H is a socket broken into two equal parts, which are 
now separated 40 inches. J is a fragment of a pillar 
about 9 inches cube, and some scraps. At K, out of 
the road line, is a socket 16 inches wide, and 6 high, 
with a piece of a pillar beside it, 8-7 X 87 X 18 inches. 
This is probably not yet put in position, as we shall 


see some duplicate blocks further on. At L is a bit 
of a pillar 9x7x16, and some scraps of stone at M. 
The road here is bent to the west, to run round the 
base of a low rise. At N. is a socket, iS inches 
square and 9 high, and a stone which may be part 
of pillar. At O, close to it, is another socket, part 
lost, but still showing it to be 23 inches square and 
19 high, one of the largest of all. Probably this was 
not yet placed in position. Some way to the S.W. 
of these are two flat slabs of limestone, much 
weathered; and the ground is all dug over. P is a 
socket, broken in two, but complete. At Q is a 
well preserved socket-block, 21 square at base and 
18 at top, 19 inches high, and the socket in it 10 
inches square. This is the first stone I saw, and 
beside it is a human skull and a few bones; perhaps 
some wayfarer perished of thirst here in sight of his 
journey’s end, or more likely he was murdered. 
After a socket at R, upright and complete, 13 inches 
high, we come to the most interesting stone, a stela; 
originally it stood on its base block as in the restora¬ 
tion of a “schcenus mark”; now it lies by its side, 
the stela 20-4 wide, and 35 inches high, but broken 
at its lower end. The base block has no socket in it. 

I turned the stela over in hopes of finding some 
inscription; but the sand blasts of the desert have 
ploughed off its faces in hollow scoops all over, so 
that no trace of letters or figuring can be seen. 
Possibly some other such stela, further on in this 
road, might have been early overthrown face down¬ 
ward, and so be preserved. At T and U are two 
sockets. Lastly at V is a part of a pillar 8 inches 
square and 17 long. I went about half a mile 
further, and looked on ahead some distance, but saw 
nothing but a scrap of fossil wood. Here there is 
certainly a great break in the line of marks, and 
possibly no more were placed. To the east of the 
rise by L, M, is a hollow with blocks of limestone 
about it, and pieces of red pottery; evidently a guard 
house, but strangely far from the road. Three faint 
paths leading from it in different directions may be 
descried. 

54. It is evident, on looking at the map, that 
these way-marks are at regular intervals; J, L, N, 
P, Q are at equal distances apart, and Q, R, S, T 
are at half such intervals. These intervals we must 
determine from the plan, which is produced by 
triangulation to the pyramids; hence we cannot 
be certain of them with any great accuracy; only 
in one part, F to J, was a continuous measurement 
made with the steel tape, but that sufficed to show 
that no very close exactitude was to be sought for. 





THE FA YUM ROAB. 


35 


To tape over seven miles of road was rather too 
much to do with an Arab. The intervals are as 
follows:— 



inches. 

— 

inches. 

A-B 

62200 

3000 

20-73 

B-C 

19800 

IOOO 

19-80 

C-D 

9700 

500 

19-40 

D-E 

IO3OO 

500 

20'6o 

E-F 

2 1300 

IOOO 

21-30 

F-G 

20493 

1000 

20*49 

G-H 

10498 

500 

21-00 

H-J 

I03I2 

500 

20-62 

J-L 

39200 

2000 

19-60 

L-N 

40900 

2000 

20-45 

N-P 

41600 

2000 

20'8o 

P-Q 

41800 

2000 

20*90 

Q-R 

20600 

IOOO 

2060 

R-S 

20800 

IOOO 

20'8o 

S-T 

20000 

IOOO 

20 'OO 

T-U 

10200 

5 °° 

20*40 

U-V 

44200 

? 


(T-V 

53600) 

2500 

21-44? 

A-U 

3997°3 

19500 

20-50 


Here the distances are manifestly in round 
numbers of the usual Egyptian cubit; the exact 
value of the mean depends of course on the general 
scale of the plan, which depends in turn on the 
distances of the pyramids by which it was fixed. 
The probable error of the result is probably ± -o6 
on the cubit of 20-50. The positions of the stelae 
at F and S are 12,000 cubits apart; and though the 
value of the schcenus was somewhat variable, the 
most accepted quantity is 12,000 cubits. Hence 
these stelae are called here “ schoenus marks.” The 
little guard-chamber on the crest of the ridge seems 
to have been the half schcenus from the starting- 
point ; and as its position is naturally fixed, probably 
the start was not an exact point, but assumed as 
half a schoenus before this hut. The distances 
therefore are reckoned from the mouth of the valley 
near Sakkara, which is just the point where this 
straight line of road would have to bend eastward 
into the cultivated land. 

55. Parallel with this in its earlier part is the 
Oasis road. This is marked out by two lines of 
flints swept up on either side, forming a band 
about five feet wide. The middles of these bands 
are 1070, 1030, 1010, and 1030 inches apart, at 
different portions of the road; averaging 1035, 
or 50 cubits of 207 inches. This road differs from 
the Fayum road in not having any distance marks. 
It rises from the plain of the pyramids up the ridge 
behind that, and there parts from the Fayum road. 
A slight ridge of pebbles branches from it in cross¬ 
ing a sloping open ground. It then dips into a 


valley; and by its side there occurs a dug-up hollow 
with pieces of limestone lying about, which looks 
as if it were the foundation of a small station or 
guard-house. On rising out of this slight valley, it 
makes a sharp turn at about 45 0 up the slope, and 
then nearly regains its original direction, gradually 
slanting across a very wide valley which runs down 
to Sakkara. A few 'small bits of limestone have 
been dug out of a hole about 86 feet north of the 
road. At the furthest point reached, the ridge of 
pebbles was seen stretching away in the distance 
as far as it could be traced. 

56. A few notes may be here added on the nature 
of this part of the desert, which has probably not 
been examined before. There are no sharp valleys 
in it, and what slight depressions there are scarcely 
ever exceed 10 or 20 feet in depth: Generally 
speaking, the ground rises continuously from the 
Nile valley up to the range which extends from 
Kom el Kashab behind the Gizeh pyramids, along 
to the west of the Birket Kurun. This range, at 
its highest point (which is 27 miles N., and 16-4 
miles W. of the South Dahshur pyramid), is about 
97 ° feet above the high Nile; at the very prominent 
point, seen plainly from Cairo, and known as Kom 
el Kashab, behind the Gizeh pyramids, the range 
is about 760 feet over high Nile. (This point is 
10-2 N., and ir6 miles E. of the South Dahshur 
pyramid). These are some of the highest points 
of this long ridge, which forms a great watershed 
of this region. Its position is shown approximately 
on the map, p. 445, of Baedecker’s Guide; though 
a corner there runs too near the Nile by about 
four miles near Abusir. From this ridge the de¬ 
scent to the Nile valley is almost continuous. There 
are two main valleys, or rather ledges, in the slope 
between this and Dahshur. One runs out at Abusir 
or north of that, its east side rising not more than 
about 10 feet; the other runs out at Sahkara, and 
is divided from the Nile valley by a rise of about 
20 or 30 feet. The long and wide valley marked 
on the War Office map, and in the Denkmdler, as 
running from the south of the Dahshur pyramids 
some 15 or 20 miles to the N.W., is entirely wrong. 
That valley reaches its watershed at barely three 
miles W. of Dahshur, and is only a small drainage 
valley eroded at right angles to the edge of the 
Nile valley. It has nothing to do with the great 
structural valleys, which all run SAV. to N.E., and 
which, with their parallel branches, dominate the 
form of this region between the Fayum and Cairo 
The Fayum road, it will be seen, keeps in the 









36 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


lowest ground in its direction, avoiding the slight 
rises; and it appears to rise steadily after passing 
the ridge behind the pyramids, ascending about ioo 
feet in six miles; it seems, at the furthest point, to 
continue gently rising, and probably goes up a 
couple of hundred feet more before dipping over 
into the Fayum basin. 

The levels here stated are all obtained by observ¬ 
ing the altitude of the tops of the pyramids and 
hills. This is but an approximation, but it is prob¬ 
ably quite safe to within 5 or 10 feet in the nearer 
parts, and 30 or 40 feet on the distant points of 
the range. The average variation in the levels, as 
given separately by the tops of the two pyramids, 
was \\ feet; and as the mean was taken, the data 
vary only 2\ feet on an average from the stated 
result. The regularity of the levels along the road, 
which are all determind solely from the pyramid 
tops without any intercomparison, will show how 
far the results may be trusted. 

This Fayum road is a most interesting, and so 
far unique, example of an ancient Egyptian road, 
with its way-marks. Probably it may be assigned 
to the Ptolemaic period, when Arsinoe, and Bacchis, 
and the temple of Kasr Rerun, all show the flourish¬ 
ing state of the Fayum. The distances of the marks 
show unmistakeably what was the itinerary system 
of the time; the decimal cubit lengths, ended by a 
schoinos measure of 12,000 cubits. The road to 
the Oasis being over 300 miles long, could not of 
course be furnished with distance marks on such 
a system; and spaces there were probably reckoned 
by day’s journeys. It would be of interest to as¬ 
certain how far the marking out by lines of flints 
is continued; and whether there are remains of 
sleeping stations by the road-side. It is probably 
not very different in age to the Fayum road, as it 
is marked out of just the same width, 50 cubits, as 
the beginning of that; and the Oases were best 
known in Ptolemaic and Roman times. 

[Note— As the pyramids are valuable survey 
signals, it is as well to state here their positions 
as approximately fixed for this survey. N. to S. 
pyramids, Dahshur, 6702 feet, at 171° 13'. N. to 
Step pyramid, Sakkara, 23,000 feet at 8° 10'. S. to 
Step pyramid, 29,476 feet, at 4° 22'. N. to 2nd 
pyramid, Gizeh, 66,173, at 158° 33'. Levels above 
highest Nile deposit in plain; top of S. pyramid 
450 feet, top of N. pyramid 456 feet, top of Step 
pyramid 338 feet. These bearings are to true N., 
corroborated by an observation of Professor Smyth’s 
on Dahshur from Gizeh. Magnetic N. was 5° 50' 


west of true N. by mean of observations at 22 
stations; average error of observation 10', probable 
error of mean 2', epoch April 1887. The French 
survey, in the Description de ! Egypte, is quite useless 
for questions of accuracy). 


CHAPTER IX. 

THE WEIGHTS OF MEMPHIS. 

57. When I visited Memphis for the first time this 
season, I was told—before I had mentioned the word 
“ weight ” to any one—that a mound there was known 
as the Kom el Mezanat, or “ mound of weights,” owing 
to the number of ancient weights found in it. I never 
again saw the man who told me of this; but I could 
easily credit it when the supply of weights began to 
flow in to me at Dahshur, from the various Arab 
dealers. In the six weeks that I lived there over 500 
weights were brought, ranging from a few grains up 
to twenty-five lbs. In the interests of metrology it 
would be most important to excavate scientifically in 
the region they come from; but all such work is pro¬ 
hibited at Memphis in the supposed interests of the 
Bulak Museum; and hence the history is destroyed 
by the Arabs without any remedy. Such is the case 
all over the country to a very sad extent. The 
destruction of historic material will go on; and if no 
thorough system of record is at work, the history 
perishes as it has done in all past destructions. 

This series of weights gives, for the first time, an 
outline of the metrology of Memphis; which, though 
unhappily not dated, is comparable with the large 
series which I have worked out from Naukratis and 
Defenneh. The general arrangement of the material 
here is on the same principles that I laid down in the 
treatment of the Naukratis weights in 1885. As there 
were but few bronze weights from Memphis, and those 
corroded, I have not included them in this statement. 
The entire absence of leaden weights shows that this 
series cannot extend much into the Greek period, 
when lead was a usual material; and the only weight 
showing its own age is one belonging to “Atha, son of 
Horuta,” probably of the XXVIth dynasty. At first 
sight, I doubted whether many of the stones I saw 
were ancient weights, owing to their not following the 
standard types of forms, but being only rounded; 
however, on examining them, and considering their 
forms, it did not seem possible to assign them to any 
other use. We have here pieces of very hard stones, 
mostly quartzose, which have been carefully smoothed, 






THE WEIGHTS OF MEMPHIS. 


37 


and polished all over; such an amount of labour as is 
shown by these would not be thrown away for a mere 
fancy or freak, in preparing hundreds of such stones * 
Moreover, these do not show, in most cases, any signs 
of having been used for work, either polishing, grind¬ 
ing, or hammering. As a matter of later use, all kinds 
of weights, highly wrought or merely smoothed, were 
often employed for hammers, as is only to be expected; 
much as modern weights serve as both hammers and 
anvils in modern kitchens. But so far as the original 
purpose of these stones can be inferred, they were not 
applied to any hard work. These rounded or cuboid 
forms are just about as numerous as the fully shaped 
weights of the regular types; and hence they occupy 
about half of the present collection. When, apart 
from the consideration of their forms, we study their 
weights, we see good reason independently to accept 
them as ancient weights. If they were a mere chance 
series of stones, such as would be used for hammers, 
we ought to find that they do not all conform to the 
regular grouping of the known weights. And on 
drawing out diagrams of the distribution of the 
weights (as in PI. xxvii.), we ought to find that the 
curves are all blurred together and confused, if we 
have included a large series of chance stones. On 
the contrary—although there is some difference in 
the forms of the curves from those of other collec¬ 
tions—we see very clear and clean gaps between the 
various standards, eg. at 84 to 85 grains, 87 to 
94 grains, 118 to 122 grains; and this certainly 
shows that but a very small proportion of casual 
or accidental stones could possibly have been in¬ 
cluded in the present collection. 

To any one accustomed to our modern weights of 
cast metal, bearing inscriptions, it might seem hard to 
believe that mere pieces of polished stone were formed 
for weighing with. But if we look round an Egyptian 
market of the present day, we see how greatly this 
skill of the modern people has fallen off from that of 
their predecessors. In place of fine polished pieces 
of hard stones, the weights now-a-days are mere 
lumps of stone without any attempt at form or 
regularity, sometimes brickbats knocked away to 
the required amount. Often I have hunted over a 
jeweller s box of weights in search of ancient bronze 
weights which are to be found in use; not only are 
there Arab dirhem weights, but also French grammes, 
ancient Egyptian weights, bits of stone, old coins 
ground down, and scraps of china saucers and plates 
chipped round. It is such a style of weights that we 

* I nee d hardly say that I am not referring to the multitude 
of regular hammer stones, which are so common in every 
Egyptian site ; such stones do not show the long and toilsome 
work of polishing to which I refer above. 


must start from in considering ancient Egyptian 
weights, and not from a modern system of the west, 
with government stamps enforced by Act of Parlia¬ 
ment. 

58. In the following tables of the weights some 
slight difference has been made from the tables 
published in Naukratis and Tanis II. The refer¬ 
ence numbers here are begun at 4001 in order 
to maintain a fixed number for every weight that 
I publish in this complete manner. The weights 
of the Egypt Exploration Fund reach 1292, with 
about a thousand more in metal still to be ex¬ 
amined ; these take that set up to 2300. Leaving 
1700 more for future additions, this set begins at 
4000 and runs to 4500; and the weights in the 
Greek department of the British Museum I have 
numbered in my report on them from 6001 to 
6515. Thus, for some time to come, the various 
series can expand without over-running four figures; 
the object in view being to maintain one reference 
number to each fully published weight, to distinguish 
and designate it for all future notice. The statement 
of material in the second column of the tables does 
not profess strict geologic exactitude, but is sufficient 
to' give a fair idea of the substances ; the black basalt 
indeed is more and more infiltrated by a network of 
minute quartz, until it merges into a microscopic 
syenite, so far as eye inspection goes, insomuch that 
it seems impossible to draw a clear line between the 
kinds. No doubt, in field work, the masses could 
easily be classified, but in small specimens taken out 
of veins or patches, a certain nomenclature is not 
to be had without microscopic examination. The 
numbers of the types of forms in the third column refer 
to the types which have been already twice published 
in Naukratis , and in Tanis II; such fresh forms as 
required illustration (153 to 173) are here given in 
PI. xxviii. The fourth column contains the present 
weight in British grains, when that differs from the 
ancient weight by reason of any perceptible wear or 
chipping: where no difference exists the entry is only 
made in the column of ancient weight. The fifth 
column contains the amount of change of weight 
when such change exceeds 2 per cent., such being the 
limit which I assigned before for excluding weights 
from consideration in results, as a greater loss leaves 
too much doubt as to the ancient weight. Thus 
where there is no alteration, the weight is reported in 
the “ancient” column; where there is under 2 per 
cent, change as estimated, its present amount is put 
in the “present” column; and where there is over 
2 per cent, change, attention is called to it by the 






38 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


difference being entered in the “ch. 

’ column. 

The 

No. 

Material. 

Form. 

Present. 

Ch. 

Ancient. 

X 

Unit. 

multiple of the unit follows, and 

lastlv the value of 









the unit as shown by the 

example in question. 


4073 

Granite, gr. 

40-165 



28830 

200 

144-1 









4074 

Basalt, bk. 

27 



144-2 

I 

144-2 









4075 

Basalt, br. 

25-33 



721 2 

5 

144-2 

59 - 

Egyptian Kat Standard tiooh 



4076 

Basalt, br. 

33 



288-7 

2 

144-3 









4077 

Basalt, br. 

32-40 

1441 -4 

— 

r 444 ' 

IO 

r 44'4 









4078 

Basalt, bk. 

11-54 



2889 3 


I 44'5 

No. 

Material. 

Form. 

Present. 

Ch. 

Ancient. 

X 

Unit. 

4079 

Granite, br. 

26-33 



72320 

500 

144-6 











r \ 2 —'\'\ 



289-4 

2 

1447 









4081 

Basalt, br. 

37-156 

1446'6 

— 

1447- 

IO 

1447 

4001 

Greenstone 

33 



13-6 

A 

136-0 

4082 

Quartzite, br. 

19-33 



14470- 

IOO 

I 44-7 

4002 

Hiematite, br. 

21-38 



138-3 

I 

>38-3 

4083 

Basalt, bk. 

27 



144-3 

I 

144-8 

4003 

Basalt, bk. 

■165 



27710' 

200 

138-5 

4084 

Basalt, br. 

37-38 



1448-2 

IO 

144-8 

4004 

Basalt, br. 

26-33 

6805 • 

— 

6930- 

5 ° 

138-6 

4085 

Basalt, bk. 

8-54 



3621-7 

25 

144-8 

4005 

Syenite, gr. 

18-165 



6942- 

50 

i 3 8-s 

4086 

Basalt, gr. 

II 



7247 

50 

144-9 

4006 

Basalt, bk. 

s 



6943- 

5 ° 

138-9 

4087 

Basalt, br. 

33-37 

28900 

— 

28980 

200 

144-9 

4007 

Basalt, br. 

12 

1383-4 

— 

1390- 

IO 

139-0 

4088 

Basalt, br. 

38 



2900*7 

20 

145 -o 

4008 

Syenite, bk. 

38-39 



2779-5 

20 

139-0 

4089 

Basalt, br. 

33 



725-6 

5 

145-1 

4009 

Basalt, bk. 

36-37 

6921' 

— 

.6950 

5 ° 

139-0 

4090 

Basalt, bk. 

101-165 

72450 - 

— 

72570 

500 

145-1 

4OIO 

Granite, br. 

38 

6838 

— 

6950 

5 ° 

139-0 

4 ° 9 I 

Basalt, bk. 

38-40 



2905 -0 

20 

I 45-2 

4OII 

Basalt, br. 

33 

695-3 

— 

695-6 

5 

139-1 

4092 

Syenite, gr. 

82 

7266 

— 

7267 

5 ° 

I 45-3 

4012 

Basalt, bk. 

54 



3478-7 

25 

139-1 

4093 

Basalt, br. 

33-36 



726-9 

5 

I 45-4 

4013 

Syenite, bk. 

5-12 

3474-8 

— 

3479 ' 

25 

139-2 

4094 

Syenite, bk. 

32-33 

i 453'9 

— 

1454-1 

IO 

I 45-4 

4014 

Felsite ? br. 

9 



6966 

5 ° 

139-3 

4095 

Syenite, gn. 

33 



1454 I 

IO 

I 45-4 

401s 

Diorite, gr. 

54 



2789-2 

20 

139-5 

4096 

Basalt, bk. 

10-54 



3637-4 

25 

i 45'4 

4016 

Basalt, br. 

165 



27910 

200 

139-5 

4097 

Felsite, gr. 

8-54 



3640-8 

25 

I 45-6 

4017 

Syenite, gr. 

3 i -33 



139-6 

I 

139-6 

4098 

Basalt, br. 

43-44 



2917 

2 

i 45'8 

4018 

Syenite, gr. 

54 



349 i '9 

25 

1397 

4099 

Granite, gr. 

19 

29150 

— 

29170 

200 

I 45'8 

4019 

Felsite, br. 

38 



2803-5 

20 

140*2 

4100 

Basalt, br. 

33 

144-6 

— 

145-9 

I 

I 45-9 

4020 

Syenite, gr. 

38 fine 



14030- 

IOO 

1403 

4101 

Basalt, br. 

165 

14527 


1459- 

IO 

i 45'9 

4021 

Jasper, bk. 

6-12 



140-5 

I 

140-5 

4102 

Basalt, br. 

33 



292*0 

2 

146-0 

4022 

Basalt, br. 

38, 164 



1405-9 

10 

140-6 

4103 

Serpentine, gn. 

33 



730-2 

5 

146-0 

4023 

Syenite, bk. 

2S-29 

1406-5 

— 

1406-6 

IO 

140-7 

4IO4 

Basalt, br. 

23 

2896’O 

— 

2920* 

20 

146-0 

4024 

Basalt, br. 

165 

2812-7 

— 

2814- 

20 

140-7 

4105 

Syenite, gr. 

3 



3652-2 

25 

146-1 

4025 

Sandstone, br. 

12 



28140- 

200 

140-7 

4106 

Basalt, bk. 

20-33 

2918-1 

— 

2924 

20 

146-2 

4026 

Basalt, bk. 

38-43 



2817-2 

20 

140-9 

4107 

Basalt, bk. 

27 

146-1 

— 

1467 

I 

146-3 

4027 

Limestone, br. 

26 



141 ’2 

I 

14 1 *2 

4108 

Syenite, gr. 

38-44 



292*7 

2 

146-3 

4028 

Haematite bk. 

48-50 



141-3 

I 

141-3 

4109 

Syenite, bk. 

54 



2928-6 

20 

146-4 

4029 

Basalt, bk. 

24 



141-3 

I 

141-3 

4110 

Syenite, bk. 

54 



3658-8 

25 

146-4 

4030 

Basalt, bk. 

II 



3533-2 

25 

141-3 

4111 

Basalt, br. 

26-33 



732 7 

5 

146-5 

4031 

Diorite, gn. 

154 



70-7 

i 

141-4 

4112 

Basalt, bk. 

26 

2930-3 

— 

2931 

20 

146-5 

4032 

Basalt, br. 

42-43 



2829-1 

20 

141-5 

4”3 

Basalt, br. 

33 



293'3 

2 

146-6 

4033 

Syenite, gr. 

2 



2829-5 

20 

141-5 

4114 

Basalt, bk. 

38 



36657 

25 

146*6 

4034 

Granite, br. 

33 



14150- 

IOO 

1415 

4115 

Basalt, bk. 

65 



3668-8 

25 

146-8 

4035 

Haematite, br. 

38 



70-8 

i 

141 -6 

4116 

Basalt, br. 

33 

293'5 

— 

293'8 

2 

146-9 

4036 

Basalt, br. 

38 



283-5 

2 

141-7 

4117 

Basalt, t k. 

12 



2937-8 

20 

146-9 

4037 

Basalt, br. 

19-27 

708-3 

— 

708-4 

5 

141-7 

4118 

Basalt, br. 

27-33 



294-0 

2 

147-0 

4038 

Basalt, bk. 

II 



3546-4 

25 

141 -8 

4119 

Basalt, br. 

• 33 

1467-2 

— 

1469-6 

IO 

147-0 

4039 

Granite, br. 

25-165 

28060- 

— 

28360- 

200 

141-8 

4120 

Syenite, bk. 

33 

2942-6 

— 

2943-6 

20 

147-2 

4040 

Haematite, br. 

49 



283-9 

2 

1419 

4121 

Basalt, gr. 

33-165 

7161 

200 

7360 

50 

147-2 

4041 

Basalt, br. 

27 



283-8 

2 

141-9 

4122 

Basalt, br. 

33 

1471-7 

— 

1472-9 

IO 

1477 

4042 

Syenite, gr. 

19-27 



2837-5 

20 

141-9 

4123 

Basalt, bk. 

II 



7370 

5 ° 

i 47'4 

4043 

Basalt, bk. 

n-54 



3548-2 

25 

141-9 

4124 

Basalt, br. 

27-33 



737-5 

5 

H 7'5 

4044 

Basalt, bk. 

7-54 



3548-1 

25 

141-9 

4125 

Basalt, bk. 

3 



7374 ' 

5 ° 

147-5 

4045 

Sandstone, br. 

23 

56600 

— 

56750 

400 

141-9 

4126 

Limestone, w. 

37-38 

1474-2 

— 

1474-6 

IO 

I 47-5 

4046 

Basalt, bk. 

r 55 



I 42 'I 

I 

I 42 *I 

4127 

Syenite, gr. 

32 



1476-0 

IO 

147-6 

4047 

Granite, gr. 

44-45 

7068 

— 

7110 

50 

I42*2 

4128 

Basalt, br. 

31-33 



1477-1 

IO 

I 47-7 

4048 

Basalt, br. 

33 



284 -6 

2 

142-3 

4129 

Syenite, bk. 

54 



3692-1 

25 

I 47-7 

4049 

Basalt, br. 

2 7-33 



712*1 

5 

142-4 

4130 

Basalt, br. 

18-27 



295-6 

2 

147 -8 

4050 

Syenite, gr. 

54 



2852-1 

20 

142-6 

413 1 

Syenite, bk. 

12-14 



2955-5 

20 

147-8 

4051 

Syenite, bk. 

”-54 



3567-6 

25 

142-7 

4132 

Basalt, br. 

33 



147-9 

I 

147-9 

4052 

Basalt, br. 

22 tall 



7”4 

4 

142-8 

4 J 33 

Basalt, br. 

27-33 



295-9 

2 

147-9 

4053 

Basalt, br. 

33 



7”4 

i 

142-8 

4134 

Basalt, br. 

II 



739-9 

5 

148 -o 

4054 

Basalt, bk. 

19-82 



2855-4 

20 

142 -8 

4135 

Basalt, br. 

33 



296-3 

2 

148-1 

4 °SS 

Basalt, bk. 

2 



3571-5 

25 

142-8 

4 ! 36 

Basalt, br. 

27-33 



296-4 

2 

148 '2 

4056 

Basalt, bk. 

33 



2858-7 

20 

1429 

4 : 37 

Granite, gr. 

2-38 



148-4 

I 

148-4 

4057 

Basalt, br. 

o 33 

28190 

— 

28590 

200 

142-9 

4138 

Basalt, br. 

33 



296-9 

2 

148-4 

4058 

Basalt, bk. 

38-40 

71400 

— 

71460 

500 

142-9 

4139 

Basalt, br. 

58 



296-8 

2 

148-4 

4059 

Basalt, br. 

27 



1430 

I 

i 43 'o 

4140 

Syenite, gr. 

42-44 

29640- 

— 

2Q6qo 

200 

148-4 

4060 

Basalt, bk. 

38-43 



2861- 

20 

143-0 

4141 

Basalt, br. 

33 



49'5 

1 

I 48'5 

4061 

Basalt, br. 

26-33 

1428-1 

— 

1432- 

IO 

i 43'2 

4142 

Basalt, bk. 

.26 

I4S6-I 

— 

I 487'5 

IO 

148-7 

4062 

Basalt, br. 

38 



716-8 

5 

1437 

4143 

Haematite, bk. 

5 



12*4 

TT 

I4S-S 

4063 

Basalt, br. 

165 



1433'4 

IO 

H 3'3 

4144 

Basalt, bk. 

54 



3720-6 

2 S 

148 -8 

4064 

Granite, gr. 

165 



2.865-9 

20 

1437 

4145 

Basalt, br. 

32 



29800 

200 

149-0 

4065 

Limestone, bk. 

14-35 



47’9 

1 

IT 

H 37 

4146 

Hematite, br. 

2-28 



49'7 

1 

149-1 

4066 

Basalt, bk. 

31 



1437 

I 

I 43-7 

4147 

Basalt, br. 

33 



298-2 

2 

149-1 

4067 

Basalt, bk. 

39-42 



3596-1 

25 

i 43'8 

4148 

Basalt, br. 

33 



745'9 

5 

149-2 

4068 

Basalt, br. 

33-36 



287-8 

2 

i 43'9 

4149 

Basalt, br. 

33 



49’8 


149-4 

4069 

Syenite bk. 

18-23 



1438-8 

IO 

I 43-9 

4150 

Basalt, br. 

27-35 



149-4 

I 

149-4 

4070 

Basalt, br. 

82 

28740- 

— 

28780 

200 

1 43'9 

4151 

Basalt, br. 

33 



298-9 

2 

149-4 

4071 

Limestone, bk., w. 

157 

I 35-3 

9 - 

144-0 

I 

144-0 

4152 

Syenite, gr. 

32-33 



298-8 

2 

149-4 

4072 

Syenite, gr. 

165 

7164- 

— 

7200- 

50 

144.0 

4'53 

Granite, gr. 

38 

29680 

— 

29930 

200 

149-6 

































THE WEIGHTS OF MEMPHIS. 


39 


No. 


4 15 4 

4155 

4156 

4 15 7 

4158 

4159 

4160 

4161 

4162 

4163 

4164 

4165 

4166 

4167 

4168 

4169 

4170 

4171 

4172 

4173 

4174 

4175 

4176 

4177 

4178 

4179 

4180 

4181 

4182 

4183 

4184 

4185 
41S6 

4187 

4188 

4189 

4190 


4191 

4192 

4193 

4194 

4195 

4196 

4197 

4198 

4199 

4200 

4201 

4202 

4203 

4204 

4205 

4206 

4207 

4208 

4209 

4210 

4211 


Material. 


Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, br. 
Basalt, bk. 
Granite, bk. 
Syenite gr. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, br. 
Basalt, bk. 
Syenite, gr. 
Basalt, bk. 
Serpentine, gr. 
Alabaster 
Diorite, bk. 
Basalt, br. 
Sandstone, br. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, br. 
Basalt, br. 
Syenite, bk. 
Syenite, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Quartz, gn. 
Granite, br. 
Basalt, bk. 
Syenite, gr. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, br. 4 
Diorite, gr. 
Flint, br. 
Porphyry, br. 
Syenite, bk. 
Sandstone, y. 
Syenite, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Glass, br., bk. 


Form. 


43 

33 

40 

40 

8-42 

171 

*65 

7 

SS 

11-16 

33 

38 

33 

9 

40 

42-54 

11- S 4 

33 

33 

2-8 

12- 42 
23-163 

172 

11- 71 

32 

10-45 

7-54 

33 
33 

32-32 

12- 62 
4 

32 

19-38 

54 

7-16 

44 


Present. 


738-6 

14950- 
150,08c 

3004-6 

1501-0 


3024-3 

3783-6 

7540 


15210 


76l -2 
305I-I 


I 53 - 9 I ~ 


Ch. 

Ancient. 

X 

Unit. 


299-4 

2 

•497 


149-9 

I 

149-9 


2998-5 

20 

149-9 

— 

75 ° • 

5 

I50-0 


15000 

IOO 

150-0 


15010 

IOO 

150 -I 


150,130 

1000 

I50*I 


501 

i 

I 50-3 

— 

3006 

20 

I 50-3 


3756-8 

25 

150-3 


300-8 

2 

150-4 

— 

1504- 

10 

150-4 


150-5 

1 

150-5 


3776-2 

25 

I 5 I -1 


75-6 

4 

151-2 

— 

3026 

20 

I 51'3 

— 

3788 

25 

151'3 


•51-4 

1 

I 5 I -4 

— 

7570 

50 

I 5 I -4 


3031-5 

20 

151.6 


759-3 

5 

I 5 I -9 


3808-2 

25 

I 52-3 

— 

15250 

IOO 

I 52-5 


30500 

200 

152-5 


152-8 

I 

152-8 


3056-3 

20 

152-8 


3820-1 

25 

152-8 


76-5 

1 

2 

I 53-0 


153-0 

I 

153-0 


153-0 

I 

153-0 

— 

765- 

5 

153-0 

— 

3061 

20 

I 53'0 


766-2 

5 

I 53'2 


30640 

200 

153-2 


3836-2 

25 

I 53-4 


3839-0 

25 

I 53'6 


154-1 

I 

I 54 -I 


Basalt, bk. 
Syenite, gr. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, br.. 
Syenite, gr. 
Syenite, gr. 
Porphyry, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Syenite, bk. 
Basalt, gr. 
Basalt, br. 
Basalt, bk. 
Syenite, bk. 
Syenite, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Granite, gr. 
Syenite, bk. 
Limestone, w. 
Basalt, bk. 


Memphite Bi-uten (21). 


10-54 



5898 

2 

62 fine 

59 i 8 

— 

5920 

2 

11-160 



17770 

6 

10-14 

5926 

— 

5937 

2 

12-42 

i 777 o 

— 

17810 

6 

11-14 



17940 

6 

9-54 



5968 

2 

12-14 



§960 

3 

10-54 



5979 

2 

S-io 



5995 

2 

n -54 

8987 

— 

8997 

3 

8-33 



6019 

2 

2-54 



6021 

2 

81-82 



6069 

2 

62-171 

6089 

— 

6092 

2 

7 -i 1 



6093 

2 

26 

11700 

5 00 

12200 

4 

3 -i 1 



6143 

2 

63-171 



6154 

2 

46 

60760 

— 

61560 

20 

II-I 4 



6171 

2 


Assyrian Shekel Standard 


4212 

4213 

4214 

4215 

4216 

4217 

4218 

4219 

4220 

4221 

4222 

4223 

4224 

4225 

4226 

4227 


Basalt, br, 
Alabaster 
Syenite, gr. 
Basalt, br. 
Basalt, br. 
Limestone, bk. 
Syenite, bk. 
Sandstone, br. 
Basalt, br. 
Basalt, br. 
Basalt, bk. 
Quartz, bk, 
Basalt, bk. 
Syenife, bk. 
Basalt, br. 
Basalt, br. 


43 - 156 
58 

160 

24 

•53 

14 

39-44 

20-33 

54 

44 - 46 

171 

54 

165 

4-54 

165 

38-156 


30-3 

122-5 


1237-1 
2485 '5 


12410 


2561-0 — 


D (24). 

244-0 

2 

30-5 

i 

490-9 

4 

122-8 

1 

30-8 

i 

6i8-6 

5 

1237-5 

10 

2490 

20 

1256-4 

10 

1259-0 

10 

12600 

IOO 

2537-6 

20 

2537'3 

20 

2 S 50-3 

20 

2563 

20 

644-6 

5 


2949 

2960 

2962 

2968 

2968 

2980 

2984 

2987 

2989 

2997 

2999 

3009 

3 °i° 

3034 

3046 

3046 

3050 

3071 

3077 

3078 
3085 


I22'0 

I22’0 

122*7 

122-8 

123-2 

1237 

123- 7 

1 24 - 5 

125- 6 

125- 9 

126- 0 
I26'9 

126- 9 

1 27 - 5 

128- 1 

I28'9 


No. 

Material. 

Form. 

Present. 

Ch. 

Ancient. 

X 

Unit. 

4228 

Serpentine, b.w. 

31-33 



43 'o 

i 

129*0 

4229 

Basalt, bk. 

II-27 



2580-0 

20 

129*0 

4230 

Basalt, bk. 

165 

12830 

— 

12930 

IOO 

129*3 

4231 

Serpentine, bk. 

iss 

258-3 

— 

259-5 

2 

129*7 

4232 

Gneiss, gr. 

58 



648-8 

s 

129-8 

4233 

Basalt, bk. 

58 thin 

2600-3 

— 

2610 

20 

130*5 

4234 

Basalt, br. 

0 23 

13040 

— 

13070 

IOO 

1307 

4235 

Basalt, bk. 

81-156 

1307-1 

— 

1308 -O 

10 

130-8 


Attic Drachma Standard (94). 


4236 

4237 

4238 

4239 

4240 

4241 

4242 

4243 

4244 

4245 

4246 

4247 

4248 

4249 

4250 

4251 

4252 

4253 

4254 

4255 

4256 

4257 

4258 

4259 

4260 

4261 

4262 

4263 

4264 

4265 

4266 

4267 

4268 

4269 

4270 

4271 

4272 

4273 

4274 

4275 

4276 

4277 

4278 

4279 

4280 
2281 

4282 

4283 

4284 

4285 

4286 

4287 

4288 

4289 

4290 

4291 

4292 

4293 

4294 

4295 

4296 

4297 

4298 

4299 

43 °° 

43 °i 

4302 

4303 

4304 


Syenite, gr. 
Basalt, br. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, br. 
Serpentine, br., 
Basalt, bk.' 
Granite, gr. 
Limestone, y. 
Basalt, br. 
Syenite, gr. 
Basalt, br. 
Basalt, br. 
Syenite, gr. 
Basalt, bk. 
Syenite, gr. 
Granite, br. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, br. 

Basalt, br. 
Syenite, gr. 
Syenite, gr. 
Syenite, bk. 
Limestone, It. br. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Limestone ? gr. 
Basalt, br. 

Basalt, gr. 
Serpentine, gr. 
Basalt, bk. 
Granite, gr. 
Basalt, br. 

Basalt, br. 

Basalt, br. 

Basalt, br. 
Serpentine, gn. 
Basalt, br. 

Basalt, bk. 

Basalt, bk. 

Basalt, br. 
Syenite, bk. 
Syenite, bk. 
Limestone, bk. 
Basalt, br. 

Basalt, br. 

Syenite 
Basalt, br. 

Syenite, bk. 
Syenite, bk. 
Basalt, br. 
Granite, pink 
Sandstone, br. 
Haematite, br. 
Haematite, br. 
Limestone, bk. 
Basalt, br. 

Syenite, gn. 
Basalt, bk. 

Basalt, bk. 

Basalt, br. - 
Basalt, amyg. 
Basalt, bk. 

Basalt, br. 

Syenite, gr. 
Syenite, gr. 
Granite, gr. 


20-165 

13-71 

7 - 54 
165 

20 

165 

165 

33 

40-165 

167 

29-33 

38-40 

23.173 

36 

3 i -33 

20-33 

2 

24 

63 

38 

0 s4 

8- 11 

38 

156 

49 

it 

25- 36 

165 

14-35 

43 

7 

36 

165 

26 
24-27 
27-33 
23-33 

115 

33 

38-43 

23 

54 

23-27 

11- 54 
54 
12 

27-33 

38-156 

37 

12- 26 

54 

II 

26- 27 
165 tall 
23-3 

109 

50-52 

40 

27 

38 
44 
27 
33 

26-33 

10 

11- 156 
18 

12- 58 
20-33 


6501 

6461 

6521 

26150 

12870 

6560 

1320-0 

6608 

33010 

33050 


664-2 

2636-1 


6656 

13337 


1315-0 

2682-0 

6711 

672-8 

3339'5 

62-5 


6757 


2669-7 

33867 

1358-2 

27070 

1363-3 


6741 


250 


28 


5 ? 


6504 

6505 

6509 
6511 
261 -4 
6533 
26170 
13L.120 
6567 

6599 

1322- 

6613 

33040 

132- 4 
330S0 

6641 

26560 

> 33 ’i 

664-8 

2660 

6646 

6667 

6670 

1 33 - 7 
1336- 
6682 

I 33'9 
13380 
67-0 
1 34 i-o 
335''4 
1343 - 
2688 
6716 
269-4 
673-2 
1346-2 
3365 

67- 5 
6757 
2701 -4 
33747 

675 - 9 
3379 'i 

33 ? 2'5 

1 35 - 4 
270 9 

676- 8 
676-9 
2710 
3388 

3383-8 

1359 

r 358 o 

27170 

680-7 

68- 2 

136- 4 
•363-5 

34090 

1367 

1367 

136-6 

684-1 

34I7-9 

6840 

• 37-1 

2739-5 

13700 


IOO 

IOO 

IOO 

100 

4 

IOO 

400 

200 

IOO 

IOO 

20 

IOO 

500 

2 

500 

IOO 

400 

2 

IO 

40 

IOO 

IOO 

IOO 

2 

20 
IOO 
2 
200 

I 

20 

50 

20 

40 

IOO 

4 

10 

20 

5 o 

1 
10 
40 
50 
10 
50 
50 

2 

4 

10 

10 

40 

50 

50 

20 

200 

400 

10 

1 

2 
20 
500 

2 

2 

2 

10 

50 

100 


40 

200 


65 *0 
65 *0 
65-1 
65*1 
65 '3 
65-3 

65- 4 

65 -6 

657 

66 - o 

66'i 

66 - i 

66-1 

66 ‘2 
66-2 
66 -4 
66 -4 
66-5 
66 5 
66 5 
66-5 
667 
66-7 
66-8 
66-8 
66-8 
66-9 

66- 9 
6 yo 

67- 0 
67-0 
67-1 
67-2 
67-2 

67-3 

677 

677 

67-3 

67-5 

67-5 

67-5 

67-5 

67-6 

67-6 

67-6 

67-7 

677 

67-7 

677 

67-7 

67'7 

677 

67-9 

67'9 

67- 9 

68 - i 
68-2 
68-2 
68-2 
68-2 
68-3 
68-3 
68-3 
68-4 
68-4 
68-4 
68-5 
68-5 
68-5 





















































































40 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


No. 

Material. 

Form. 

Present. 

Ch. 

Ancient. 

X 

Unit. 

430s 

Basalt, br. 

32-40 



274-5 

4 

68-6 

4306 

Basalt, bk. 

38 



274-6 

4 

68-6 

4307 

Basalt, bk. 

40 

685-8 

— 

685-9 

10 

68-6 

4308 

Sandstone, br. 

33-40 

1367-9 

— 

1373' 

20 

68-6 

4309 

Basalt, br. 

27-40 



2743 '5 

40 

68-6 

4310 

Silicified wood. 

10-S4 



2745'2 

40 

68-6 

4311 

Basalt, br. 

33-40 



687 

I 

687 

4312 

Basalt ? gn. 

12-14 


? 

137-4 

2 

68-7 

4313 

Basalt, bk. 

11-38 



13740 

200 

687 

4314 

Basalt, bk. 

40 



137-6 

2 

68-8 

431s 

Serpentine, bk., w. 

32 

I 374‘5 

— 

I 375-5 

20 

68-8 

43 it> 

Basalt, br. 

55-65 



2752-5 

40 

68-8 

4317 

Basalt, bk. 

33-37 

132,560 

5000 

147,600 

2000 

68-8 

43 ! S 

Syenite, bk. 

12-27 



r 37'9 

2 

689 

4319 

Syenite, bk. 

54 



3446-0 

5 ° 

689 

4320 

Limestone, gr. 

32-33 



276-0 

4 

69-0 

4321 

Basalt, bk. 

64-80 

2702-8 

60 

2760 

40 

69-0 

4322 

Syenite, bk. 

12-20 



276-5 

4 

69-1 

4323 

Basalt, br. 

37-40 

1376-6 

— 

1382- 

20 

69-1 

4324 

Basalt, bk. 

II-I 4 



1381-3 

20 

69-1 

4325 

Basalt, bk. 

39 low 



2762-9 

40 

69-1 

4326 

Quartz, bk. 

4-54 



27637 

40 

69-1 

4327 

Syenite, bk. 

58 



1383-2 

20 

69-2 

4328 

Syenite, gr. 

37-165 



2766-4 

40 

69 - 2 

4329 

Basalt, gn. 

36 



138-6 

2 

69 3 

433 ° 

Basalt, br. 

165 



2776-6 

40 

69-4 


Phoenician Shekel Standard (62). 


4331 

Limestone, bk. 

62 



52-1 

i 

208-4 

4332 

Basalt, bk. 

7 -i 1 



10545 

50 

2109 

4333 

Basalt, bk. 

54 -H 7 



2114-8 

IO 

211-5 

4334 

Basalt, br. 

165 

4929*2 

37 o 

5300 

25 

212 "O 

4335 

Syenite, gr. 

15 



5325 

25 

213-0 

4336 

Basalt, bk. 

ss 

1616*5 

90 

1710 

8 

2137 

4337 

Basalt, bk. 

2-54 



4276-5 

20 

213-8 

4338 

Basalt, bk. 

I 0 -II 



5375 

25 

215-0 

4339 

Syenite, bk. 

3-168 



5391 

25 

215-6 

4340 

Basalt, br. 

14 tall 



2157-5 

10 

2157 

4341 

Syenite, gr. 

10-54 



4331-9 

20 

2166 

4342 

Syenite, gr. 

n -54 

4336-8 

— 

4339- 

20 

216 9 

4343 

Syenite, gr. 

8-54 



544-3 

25 

217-6 

4344 

Serpentine, bk. 

22 tall 



54-5 

i 

2l8'0 

4345 

Basalt, br. 

42-44 



5459 

25 

218-4 

4346 

Syenite, bit.. 

54 



4367-8 

20 

218-4 

4347 

Basalt, br. 

14 



4388-5 

20 

219-4 

4348 

Basalt, br. 

7-35 



4398-1 

20 

219-9 

4349 

Basalt, bk. 

9-10 



2202*3 

10 

220'2 

4350 

Basalt, 1 br. 

33 

1757-9 

— 

1763 

8 

220'4 

4351 

Basalt, bk. 

8 



5513 

25 

220'5 

4352 

Syenite, gr. 

12 



22080 

100 

220'8 

4353 

Basalt, bk. 

11-14 



5543 

25 

221 '7 

4354 

Felsite, gr. 

54 



4434-1 

20 

221 ’7 

4355 

Basalt, bk. 

55 



2221 '6 

10 

222'2 

4356 

Diorite, br., w. 

54 



4444-3 

20 

222 2 

4357 

Granite, gr. 

165 tall 



11130 

50 

222’6 

4358 

Syenite, bk. 

11 



5567 

25 

222'7 

4359 

Basalt, bk. 

11 



5585 

25 

223-4 

4360 

Syenite, bk. 

10 



5588 

25 

223-5 

4361 

Syenite, gr. 

5 S- 5 8 



1788-5 

8 

223-6 

4362 

Haematite, bk. 

50 

hi-9 

— 

1120 

\ 

224'p 

4363 

Syenite, bk. 

2-54 



4483-8 

20 

224-2 

4364 

Syenite ? bk. 

I I 

2229-9 

— 

2244 

10 

224-4 

4365 

Syenite, bk. 

58 

4500-0 

— 

45 o 6 

20 

2257 

4366 

Basalt, bk. 

ii -54 



4520-9 

20 

226-0 

4367 

Syenite, bk. 

11 



5655 

25 

226 ’2 

4368 

Basalt, bk. 

10-54 

4526-9 

— 

4539 

20 

226-9 

4369 

Basalt, bk 

8-10 



5686 

25 

227-4 

4370 

Basalt, bk. 

10 



455 o-o 

20 

227-5 

4371 

Basalt, bk. 

168 



4571-8 

20 

228-6 

4372 

Syenite, bk. 

10-11 



57 i 6 

25 

228-6 

4373 

Basalt, bk. 

2 



1 1430 

5 o 

228 6 

4374 

Syenite, bk. 

2 



4573'5 

20 

228-7 

4375 

Basalt, br. 

22-165 

5727 

— 

5767 

25 

229-1 

4376 

Quartz, gr. 

2-56 



2298-4 

10 

229 '8 

4377 

Basalt, br. 

165 

5743 

— 

5752 

25 

230-1 

4378 

Haematite, bk. 

50 



230-4 

1 

230-4 

4379 

Basalt, bk. 

54 



4611-5 

20 

230-6 

4380 

Basalt, bk. 

38 



23130 

10 

231-3 

438 i 

Syenite, bk., w. 

10-167 



4639-2 

20 

232-0 


No. 

Materiai. 

Form. 

Present. 

Ch. 

Ancient. 

X 

Unit. 

4382 

Basalt, br. 

54-64 

4620-0 

_ 

4645- 

20 

232*2 

4383 

Sandstone, br. 

27 

174.320 

— 

174,420 

750 

232-6 

4384 

Syenite, gr. 

58 thin 

4635'6 

— 

4660 

20 

233 -o 

4385 

Granite, gr. 

12-13 

4633 - 3 

— 

4660 

20 

233 0 

4386 

Syenite, bk. 

l6 

4656-3 

— 

4661 

20 

233' 0 

4387 

Diorite, gr. 

65 

1870-1 

— 

1874 

8 

234-2 

4388 

Syenite, bk. 

8 



46»5 '3 

20 

234 ‘3 

4389 

Granite, gr. 

7 



4689-5 

20 

234-5 

4390 

Basalt, bk. 

10-167 



5862 

25 

2 34‘5 

4391 

Syenite, bk. 

10-54 



4696-3 

20 

234-8 

4392 

Basalt, bk. 

54 



4696-1 

20 

234-8 


zEginetan Drachma Standard (35). 


4393 

Haematite, bk. 

49 - 5 ° 



188-o 

2 

94.O 

4394 

Basalt, bk. 

101 



4761-4 

50 

95‘2 

4395 

Syenite, bk. 

165 



4788-1 

5 ° 

957 

4396 

Syenite, bk. 

54 



2404-9 

25 

96-2 

4397 

Basalt, bk. 

54 



2413 '4 

25 

96-5 

4398 

Basalt, br. 

14-165 



4827 ’2 

5 ° 

96-5 

4399 

Syenite, gr. 

54 



4829 - 4 

5 ° 

96-6 

4400 

Basalt, bk. 

55 

1913-0 

— 

1927 

20 

96-8 

44 oi 

Limestone, gr. 

27-33 



582-3 

6 

97‘0 

4402 

Serpentine, bk. 

11-58 

2422-3 

— 

2426" 

25 

97 'o 

4403 

Syenite, gr. 

II 

4856-8 

— 

4867 - 

5 ° 

97'4 

4404 

Syenite, gr. 

12 



4872-9 

50 

97’4 

4405 

Basalt, bk. 

3 



4889-8 

5 ° 

97 8 

4406 

Syenite, bk. 

12 



4901-6 

5 ° 

98-0 

44°7 

Basalt, br. 

l6l 

1177-2 

— 

1178-4 

12 

98 -2 

4408 

Agate, red 

159 

? 


394-6 

4 

98 6 

4409 

Basalt, br. 

ball 



1183-2 

12 

98-6 

4410 

Basalt, bk. 

54 



2469-3 

25 

98-8 

4411 

Basalt, bk. 

11 



4940-6 

50 

98-8 

4412 

Syenite, bk. 

2 



4947-2 

5 ° 

98-9 

44 G 

Basalt, br. 

00 

1 

to 

GO 



1187-5 

12 

990 

4414 

Basalt, bk. 

4 



4961 -8 

50 

99‘2 

4415 

Basalt, bk. 

10-54 



4964-0 

5 ° 

99'3 

4416 

Granite, gr. 

19-33 



4975 'o 

5 ° 

99'5 

4417 

Alabaster 

15 



33'3 


99'9 

4418 

Syenite, gr. 

ii -54 



4997-3 

5 ° 

99'9 

4419 

Basalt, bk. 

58 



2502-5 

25 

100*1 

4420 

Alabaster 

170 

3822-6 

■- 

3835 

19 

100*9 

4421 

Basalt, br. 

19-27 

? 


405-7 

4 

101*4 

4422 

Basalt, bk. 

7-54 



5075 

5 ° 

101*5 

4423 

Basalt, bk. 

12 



5077 

5 ° 

101*5 

4424 

Basalt, bk. 

9 



5085 

5 ° 

101*7 

4425 

Basalt, bk. 

168 



5101 

5 ° 

102 *o 

4426 

Syenite, gr. 

11-12 



5123 

50 

102*4 

4427 

Syenite, gr, 

7 -i 1 



10322 

100 

103*2 

4428 

Basalt, bk. 

2 



5186 

50 

103*7 


Eighty Grain Standard (70). 


4429 

Alabaster 

l 5- 2 3 



3060 

40 

76-5 

4430 

Basalt, bk. 

38 



3080-1 

40 

77 ° 

4431 

Basalt, gr. 

11 



3859 ‘8 

50 

77-2 

4432 

Syenite, gr. 

54-86 



3864-6 

5 ° 

77'3 

4433 

Basalt, bk. 

12-14 



3096-7 

40 

77'4 

4434 

Basalt, bk. 

14-54 



3098-7 

40 

77 5 

4435 

Basalt, bk. 

54 



3873 '6 

5 ° 

77'5 

4436 

Sandstone, br. 

54 



3876-5 

50 

77'9 

4437 

Basalt, br. 

33 



779-4 

10 

77 9 

4438 

Syenite, gr. 

11-12 



3894-6 

5 ° 

77‘9 

4439 

Syenite, gr. 

7-54 



3903-6 

5 ° 

78-1 

4440 

Basalt, bk. 

16 

ON 

OO 

— 

7810 

100 

78-1 

4441 

Syenite, gr. 

54 



3 12 9'2 

40 

78-2 

4442 

Basalt, bk. 

163 



1566-1 

20 

78-3 

4443 

Syenite, bk. 

26-33 

6267 

— 

6287 

80 

78-3 

4444 

Syenite, gr. 

8-12 



6280 

80 

78-5 

4445 

Syenite, gr. 

10 



3 H 6-4 

40 

787 

4446 

Basalt, br. 

33 

3 * 4-9 

— 

315-2 

4 

78-8 

4447 

Basalt, br. 

33 

1581-0 

— 

1581-6 

20 

79-1 

4448 

Syenite, gr. 

3-54 



3 i 69'5 

40 

79‘2 

4449 

Porphyry, bk. 

9 



3961-2 

5 ° 

79-2 

4450 

Basalt, br. 

23-165 

6230 

— 

6340 

80 

79‘2 

4451 

Syenite, bk. 

42-54 



3 * 7*’4 

40 

79'3 

4452 

Syenite, gr. 

54 



3970-8 

5 ° 

79'4 

4453 

Diorite, w. 

38-54 



31787 

40 

795 

4454 

Basalt, br. 

38 



318-6 

4 

79 6 

4455 

Syenite, gr. 

38 

7906 

— 

7960 

100 

79’6 





















































THE WEIGHTS OF MEMPHIS. 


4i 


No. 


4456 

4457 

4458 

4459 

4460 

4461 

4462 

4463 

4464 

4465 

4466 

4467 

4468 

4469 

4470 

4471 

4472 

4473 

4474 

4475 

4476 

4477 
447 8 

4479 

4480 

4481 

4482 

4483 

4484 

4485 

4486 

4487 

4488 

4489 

4490 

4491 

4492 

4493 

4494 

4495 

4496 

4497 1 


4498 

4499 

45 00 


Material. 


Basalt, bk. 
Syenite, bk. 
Granite, gr. 
Alabaster 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Limestone, bk. 
Hrematite, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Syenite, gr. 
Basalt, br. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Haematite, rd. 
Syenite, gr. 
Syenite, gr. 
Syenite, bk. 
Syenite, gr. 
Jasper, gn. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, br. 
Syenite, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Syenite, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Granite, gr. 
Diorite, gr. 
Granite, gr. 
Basalt, bk. 
Syenite, gr. 
Syenite, gr. 
Basalt, br. 
Jasper gn. 
Felsite, gr. 
Basalt, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 
Syenite, bk. 
Basalt, gr. 
Haematite, bk. 
Basalt, bk. 


Syenite, br. 
Basalt, br. 
Jasper, gn. 


Form. 

Present. 

Ch. 

Ancient. 

X 

Unit. 

54 



3186-8 

40 

797 

10-54 



3979'5 

50 

79'9 

165 

6375 

— 

6391 

80 

79'9 

15 



I597-5 

20 

79’9 

174 



2003 '6 

25 

8o - i 

io-54 



4015-5 

50 

80-3 

31 oval 



80-4 

I 

80-4 

49-50 



160-9 

2 

80-4 

10-54 



6433 

80 

80-4 

169 

3212-5 

— 

32I5-5 

40 

80-5 

165 

3990-9 

— 

4030 

50 

80-6 

3S 

6447 

— 

6457 

80 

80'6 

166 



16130 

200 

80 '6 

54 



3230-0 

40 

80-7 

38-43 



40-4 

i 

8o‘8 

168 

6466 

— 

6471 

80 

80 -9 

11-167 

4056-8 

— 

4058 

50 

81 I 

11-54 



4063-7 

50 

812 

IO-II 



3254'o 

40 

Si -3 

15 thin 



40-7 

i 

81-4 

10-54 



3258-2 

40 

81'5 

33 tall 



163-2 

2 

81-6 

10-54 



3262-6 

40 

81.6 

20-33 

32510 

— 

32670 

400 

Si 7 

167 



4090 7 

50 

81-8 

54-87 



4101-5 

50 

82-0 

n-54 



3283-3 

40 

82-1 

165 

8200 

— 

8210 

IOO 

82-1 

166 

3290-1 

— 

3292 

40 

82-3 

7-42 

2063-4 

— 

2070 

25 

82-5 

7-114 

8in 

— 

8260 

IOO 

82-6 

3-ii 



16530 

200 

82-6 

II 



8279 

IOO 

82-8 

27-33 



166-o 

2 

83-0 

5 



332-0 

4 

83-0 

7-54 

4157-2 

— 

4170 

50 

83-1 

39-54 



4191-9 

50 

8.3-8 

2 



4192^ 

50 

8,3-8 

7-54 



4192-4 

50 

838 

II 



8381 

IOO 

83-8 

IO9 



i68'o 

2 

84-0 

n-54 



4198-1 

5° 

84-0 

n Silver Standard (3). 



JI-I4 



8536 

OO 

85-4 

12-63 



864-3 

IO 

86-4 

162 



865-6 

IO 

86-6 


60. The whole of the preceding results are shown 
in the diagram on PI. xxvii., to which we now refer. 
In the Egyptian kat weights the distribution is 
different to that which we have seen to prevail in 
both Naukratis and Defenneh, and elsewhere (see 
Tanis II.). Though generally covering the same 
range, none of the prominent varieties (shown by 
the greater heights of the curves) are alike. This 
seems to show that they come down by a descent 
different from that of the Delta weights. The 
smaller weights, which were probably used more 
for valuable articles, have not so wide a range, being 
nearly all within the range 141 to 150 grs.: the 
haematite weights, however, belong to a low variety, 
four being less than 142, and only one over that. 
A unit of two kats is shown by No. 4022, which is 
marked with five cuts on the top; being of one 
uten, this shows two kats as a basis; and it is 
connected with the two-kat weights being com¬ 
moner than those of the unit, the kat. 


A remarkable multiple of the kat seems to have 
been used at Memphis. Many weights were noticed 
not to agree to any system, except to binary and 
ternary multiples of the uten; and though such 
multiples are so unusual that they could not readily 
be accepted, yet the quantity of examples of these 
weights, and their near agreement, obliges us to 
regard them as a special variety. That they are a 
branch of themselves, and not merely unusual 
multiples of the uten, is seen by their not being 
distributed over the whole range of the uten. On 
the diagram will be seen, within the “ Egyptian ” 
curve, a smaller broken line showing the distribution 
of these weights, which I provisionally call the 
Memphite bi-uten. Their basis may -have been the 
uten, only we have as yet no ground to take a 
lesser basis than two utens. The data of this curve 
are entered below it by sloping marks, to distinguish 
them from the upright kat marks. It will be noticed 
that the large multiples of the kat (3 of 100, 5 of 
200 and 1 of 1000), just agree in their distribution 
with the curve of this peculiar series; and probably 
therefore should be regarded as the lower multiples 
of this slightly differenced unit. The truth seems 
to be that at Memphis the uten was not treated 
decimally in all cases (including multiples by 2 and 
5), as was usual elsewhere; but was multiplied by 
2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 40: a course so unusual that we 
are justified in separating it as a local variety of a 
high standard. 

61. Of the Assyrian shekel, there are but few 
examples as compared with the numbers found at 
Naukratis and Defenneh. This standard seems 
never to have taken root at Memphis; and the 
characteristic sexagesimal multiplication of it is 
entirely absent. Not a single multiple by 3, 6, 12, 
30 or 60 is found, all the examples being on the 
Egyptian decimal system of multiples, 2, 4, 5, 
10, 20 and 100. A very curious token of the neglect 
of this system is shown by weight No. 4420; this 
is of alabaster, a favourite material for Assyrian 
weights, and it weighs exactly half a mina (3835 
-T- 30 = 127-8); but it is marked with 19 on its face, 
an odd number which at once shows it to be an 
adapted weight. Originally then a half mina weight, 
it was useless at Memphis where the mina was un¬ 
known ; consequently it was weighed in terms of 
another standard—the Aeginetan—and marked to 
be used for that. 

The system of weight later known as the Attic 
standard, from having been adopted by Solon to 
replace a previous system, is very common at Mem- 

F 































42 


A SEASON IN EGYPT. 


phis. This fact corroborates what I had previously 
pointed out as to the pre-Greek origin of this unit; 
especially as the absence of leaden weights here 
shows the lack of Greek influence. Further, one 
of these weights, No. 4284, bears an inscription 
probably of the XXVIth dynasty (see PL xxviii.). 
There is much confusion between the heavier varieties 
of this and the lighter Kat weights; and I have 
been obliged to make a somewhat arbitrary separa¬ 
tion. But that they really constitute two separate 
units, may be seen on looking at the smaller multi¬ 
ples in the diagram; these are the more accurate, 
and the separation between the Attic and the kat 
units is very marked and clear in all the lower 
multiples: it is only on reaching 20 units that the 
confusion arises. The lowest varieties of the Attic 
are also due to the rougher large weights, the ac¬ 
curate small weights being nearly all between 66'5 
and 69 grains. A super-multiple of half a mina is 
shown by No. 4248, which is marked with the 
hieroglyphic “10” on the top; as it weighs 500 
drachmae, this shows 50 drachmae to be the basis 
of its numeration. 

The Phoenician shekel standard is considerably 
developed in Memphis. And this, coupled with the 
rarity of the Assyrian, points to these weights 
belonging mostly to a period after the Phoenician 
intercourse, but before the Assyrian conquest, about 
700 B.c. The distribution differs from the examples 
at Naukratis and Defenneh, excepting the main 
features of a maximum at 223, a fall at 226, and a 
second maximum. The extent of range is, however, 
just the same. There are very few small weights, 
however, among the Memphite, scarce any under 
five ounces, and they are mostly over half a pound 
British; hence this was not a standard for valuable 
articles. 

The Aeginetan standard—so called from its use at 
Aegina in later times—was an ancient unit in Egypt. 
I pointed out in 1883 {Arch. Jour .) that the weight 
of Amenhotep I. in the British Museum, shows by its 
inscription an indubitable unit of 207‘6 grains, and 
that this was probably an early weight of the 
Aeginetan system. Syrian examples bridged over 
the interval between 207 and 192 grains, but that 
was all. Now, however, at Memphis we find two 
marked weights, No. 4420 giving a unit of 202 grains, 
and No. 4407 giving a unit of 196 grains. Thus by 
marked examples in Egypt we have 207, 202, and 
196 grains, fully connecting this standard with the 
historic Aeginetan system. On looking at the 
diagram in PI. xxvii. it will be seen that the ex¬ 
amples of this standard at Memphis just cover this 


same range, being there entered on the halfstater or 
drachma as 95-104 grains. This is considerably 
different to the Naukratite or ordinary Greek dis¬ 
tribution, which alike extend from 92-100, but not 
higher; the high range of the Memphite examples 
probably belongs to the earlier, pre-Greek, period, 
when the unit was not so much degraded from the 
heavy standard of 104 which occurs under Amen¬ 
hotep I. For the further consideration of the history 
of this standard in Greece, refer to “Weights and 
Measures,” in the Encyclopedia Britannica, where I 
have stated its varieties. 

The standard which I found at Naukratis, and 
provisionally called the “eighty-grain,” was very 
fully used at Memphis; and its range extends about 
two grains higher than at Naukratis. There is 
otherwise nothing special in the examples here 
found; and for its history and names in other 
countries I must refer to the article above mentioned. 

The Persian silver standard, always a rare one, is 
particularly scarce at Memphis, agreeing to the early 
age of these weights. 

In general it may then be said that where there 
are differences from the series found at Naukratis 
and Defenneh, they are such as are fully explicable 
by the more inland origin, and earlier age in general, 
of the Memphite collection. The broad features of 
interest are the extension in full force in Memphis of 
the two systems which we know by Greek names, as 
the Attic and Aeginetan, thus confirming what I 
had before suggested of their Egyptian origin. 

62. At the foot of Plate xx. are some illustrations 
of the mechanics of the Egyptian balance. This has 
been so misunderstood by Wilkinson, that it is well 
to set this matter in its obvious light. The beam 
was suspended by a loop or ring from a bracket pro¬ 
jecting from the stand ; this bracket is shown in side 
view though at right angles to the beam, just as the 
Egyptians drew a full eye in a side face. Then 
below the beam a long tongue was attached, not 
above the beam, as with us. To test the level of the 
beam, a plummet hung down the tongue, and it was 
this plummet which was observed to see if the tongue 
was vertical and the beam horizontal. The weigher 
is often shown steadying this plummet with his hand, 
as it would be set swinging by the motions of the 
beam. Such is the whole system, which is so simple, 
that it seems strange that any mistake could be made 
about it; to say nothing of the mechanical absurdity 
of the explanation which has been current for so 
long. 



MR W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE. 


THE PYRAMIDS AND TEMPLES OF GIZEH. By W. M. Flinders Petrie, Containing an Account 
of Excavations and Surveys carried on at Gizeh during 1880-81-82; with the application of the results to 
various modem theories of the Pyramids. ( Illustrated,) Cheap and Revised Edition. Six Shillings. 

“ No one can fail t0 P rofit h y a stud y of Mr Flinders Petrie’s exact and luminous account of the Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh. "—Spectator. 

LONDON: FIELD & TUBB, 


TANIS. Part I., 1883-84. By W. M. Flinders Petrie, Author of “Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh,” &c. With 
19 Plates and Plans. Royal 4to, pp. viii and 64, boards. 25s. 

LONDON: TRUBNER & CO. 


TANIS. Part II. Nebesha Daphne (Tahpenes). By W. M. Flinders Petrie and F. LL. Griffith. Royal 4to, 
pp. viii and 164. Sixty-four plates, boards. 25s. 

LONDON: TRUBNER & CO. 


NAUKRATIS. I. By W. M. Flinders Petrie, with Chapters by Cecil Smith, E. A. Gardner, and B. V. Head. 
Royal 4to, pp. viii and 100. With 45 Plates. 25 s. 

LONDON: TRUBNER & CO. 







/VVSA 


1 ^ 

aaaa 

I? 

C 7 tl P 


13 


't^n 


CD 

VW</ wvaaa/ 



£<£1 

yfXS+ 9 . 

-w 


P.&. 



AM 

AMA 


•^o 

* p 


II 


4o ca 

!> A 

41 

&. 


So 

IV 


-4^ 


14, 


cS 

' P.6. 


■is coon of 

O o if 


ir ^ [iSf-t-r^s/jerr ,j r /l 

*C^ ~TS ^ -~^c. 1^-0 c=-^'^Cf □ p 


I? 


'bppum 


OW.C ' ttzA. ^ 

Z)ev>. k rvvi-^ t-y* 

/✓■ m *-• 


EI€?A^ 

,‘Mcn f i*ef=s J 

AAAaA JT t" - - 

/vwv>/u- ~^ a< 

> u'i >f 

it=t / 


zo;;."!.,„ 


K O TL O 3 S O . V- 5 tc. 33 Z -3 

2.1 


n *->vfci. 


25 . 

^Ti 


/VSAA\ 


/■? 

»*• • a^avv 


3 mxP 

PHSMIL 

~ v ' n r s t—c- 

n £iUrr 

WA~^ 

/ws^^A^i ---< p. G 


crSfin 

JMsSl 


2.1 




_ . * £31 rrj r 7 <=^ 

ll ? t «5 l T ^ 4 nr 

i P 

h f < 


AAA 

U 

AA/N 

P.6. 


o 7+*sLC JD «■ w k ■ 


2.3 


J ^ 1 O 


fP 

<zt sp _ ipt 

i! ri- ‘ m .-. 

iij&'/fPi^ 


PG 


28 


*7 






2 . 9 Z 33 

ll 7-^s> 


U 

/w^ 

7T 3 


Pn 

J a/va 


£ 

_ .St 

a ?i ~ 


3 °fftf Tft 

w &i — 


*=M<3 
// ^ 

o 


tn 


o. 


34 


e=tf 


* 


34 A 

7C! A_ 
rt$~ a 


5 * 

41 

4U»<^ 
-rf 5 - 


, P P 


G. 


'cCb 


24 




31 


JpM 

cSOHI^ 


© o 

G. 




36 v.7<- !.<• 


35 

v3o 


<26 M 

y -- -*“ <3? <=>l 

(i (1 m c 
77?r 


41 


P P jgk 

n 

U 


G. 


4-2. 


-£^•4 

fi tf —, 


44 „ c P 

*J 


43 


’ya, 

fzA% 


O 
» o 


4 5 


±i 4. H 


m 




1^ 

C? ^-i D 

^ -p " 


fX¥/rf' 

| _ A L -r~. 

AAM » ♦ — p< ar*']- 

IXi^ 

.#■ I- * 

“<■ ^ A 


^<%<LT«ASf 

~M'//////,r\ r J& 

ri^fif^LLc f 

? ^s? tK 4 r —' 4 

r<\S 44 f£i H^-TI 

ryfnr^nr 


AAAA 
AM^A^an 

P. G. 

flinitpw.cit.V, ^■' l/ ’/44 <1 

.t ^r.A-. 


*1 1 ^ 

AtT^I; 

lu^Kr 


37 


Av^vnA 


/WA. 


I? f 1 if 4 

^'■U * 'I 

ii 4 r 


-w 


P. G. 


it 4 ? Ali 

SfrtSu 

*.=t» nte? 

PyET^ 

("vc ry Za/y e ^ P. G 


Aj 

2 

C?3 

« 

U 


47 




□ 


De x.i< 


P. G. 


iiJb:U 4 * 

w® ft 


'/gfir 

s =) 


3? 




3J V.7-J3 


^ « ■w v „ r 

■M u - 4 = 


%$,* 4 > 


z\ 


Fiqu-ra AAA 


AAA I 

Zri C= * > — 

AV\ 


iJS 8B» 
gj7g 


ILJ Li 

it- 

CCD 

'* 1 


- A 

- (J m 

^ jl! f; • 

u Pt . 


48 


til 


W IT ft W 

4 = 1 

si ii ^ 

^ Y P ' G ' 


^ ffl 


4-9 


o c 


~ 1 L j /vwj* 

il® 


AAAA <WV» A- -|> A 

14 

40 


>w\ 

n 



<iii 


n 

■ 

S3 


, 

m 

G » » » 


SQ _ p- , 

CrT i 

r:=t 


/ 

«t| 

aaa r 


HI 



c 

c_ 


kC 


P.G. 

P.G.^-- 

HMF-P. 














































































ASS U A N 


II 


si 

*'///* 


t 

k 

K 


Ilf 

AW 


i 

* 


//• 


?= 

4P4f^A,*f tlss 

M H 


K 0 n o s 

“St Hh 

» a n L_l f 

~ n 

_ 


5 o 

5-4. 


-4 


ss 


5"6 




-.v 


W.mltn £££ 

« V 


£• 

Vi 


Si 


WHIP 

AVW\ /vWV\ 

rp awv\ 

PT PT 


*- -*—^ 

\'4 

41 ~i] X 1 ) 

f> o r t~L on o / cl v-e. ry 

TOUC/h 

0/ 2 £ co t u m. res . 


/W\ 

P.G 


flint 

tn 

s*1 

12 

117 



P. 


/ uu^J, 

e- /T- . s +*-*34 

”/^rr1" 

£Lg 

Sq == 

* ||£j J 

<=2 

/y 


*7 


#>.&. 


11 

ri. 


ta 


» 

4><| 

/I 

t- 


lT«1 


PI 

:p l 

1)K “I 
- 1 H 

>0 

■*. '*"1. 




4> l 


. i 
A‘ 
4 

'F 


i 4 


P L i C, of T o Cs k N • of jKorLQSSO 

§ ■ 

" ■” ^ is&s 

A f ffl 


s. S%-' 4 

5 l ' 

k ^ k 

— a 
o | 


ft 


?- t 


I 

f 


F ? 


ffeunr, r“+ 

^ p ' 


is- 


DuD®*? o f*~c2a 

^i.' gicre.- 



''121 


I t I 


£ 


4 ~ 


£. /> 


ye.y'i ous , 


o n- -AA foi.ce, of f L cl. t 
bloc-k C^cJWM-tn-j LfjL. 


Jy l, l-e,. 



= = Lt :Cl -f 

(Ti ^ 0 o) g) 


/ H. So Lutpic r-rL y cu LL e, y 5 of y o ec cL f A* A. iLoce. to A 5 s u. oc n. . a.*J. 


68 <wi«H}*PW 

JL 


i-d-e. 338-3^ 


PG-. 


<? 


n 

/ww 


1 

r <e=> ^ *“*ii 

£i * 

.jr 49 A ^~ T 

^ J" ' “« 


73 


U 


/\A /v\ 

© 

t 


gailtlWiiTVs’-tM 


1 4 fF "rfl =r * •■ ' 

fir^igQlS' 

iVwv* 1 ■’ J f y^ { I 

A! 

*118 


k 

0 y -t4- 
k. 4 ^ - 


II 


II / Me,s*u C 

| .^C /■ ^ Vt - 

-tol 0-0 UJ 


M 1.,-L^ptld. 
lX- Cc^y tf _ (210 h- 

t+c(X 

**3 ' 


P-G- 


71 


"> ' - L B1 4 

#A > < f ~5 

i t'f < ^ -id 

W ss r \ 0 




^ 4 . o 

£ 7 - ' ' 

1 

PG. 


/yw. 

I 


t i U 1 A ' 

^ ^ ■ Xl R ^ * t 

^ / V T 1 ] 1 = i. L 

> ll W n • e I—e- -^E> bb 

* zs 7 ~ L tz r. 

0 ^ '-li 4 

s tp d *i*n k %M 4 . 


i* 


; ,=r„- •€ ■'A- ' ... M 


75- 


7 : <p^ta* 

j ^ ^ & 

V Aw 1 ^ 

i M IS MW 

#• ) ■ » * • 

i % < ^ 5 

! -i f. t/ ^ 

1 v/ — 

k lit. /f s 

n 


p-c. 


t&tPrttJkkti l ^ >iA2f 


4 

1 Sfilfr 

41 V 

—A_^ ■ 



fJ 


■ tju^’t r *^uv< 


:«• 


A,.., 


y//////p* 




a: 




/WA 

SI 

© 

u 


P.G-. 


7 W< 22 . IT ?.? {n ? A 

L-jSfc-M-s-A stjri^r. 

t« <2 s or: - 22 : ^i; it | 

32h-.2ilS 


AWi 

P.G. 


77 


AVVSA 

AVWN 

awa 


K'-XVLZl 

HW(7^ 

r;i ? ^ 2- 


AMA 

JrS 

/VW\ 


P-G. 


78 


tJrsd-'! - ? Jtr 

1 -^ 1 / A 
#tj fc fl a . u 

^ AW 


v- //- 


O 

Cr 




' ' U 1 JS/ 1 / 


P-G. 


JV- M F. P. 





























































ASSUAN III 



W M F- P 














































ASSUAN 


V 


9© 


u 


S/ ,f ^ I 1 

/ -ss^^ 




/W\ 


T1 


( '■' 


&= 

- L 


1 fe g 

■r# 


/w\ 

<*> b. 


<x> 

/W 

7 


In So uuth t-y-n. ya^iLe^Qs of re cl.cL froyyx. P!l<-Lcul to fssU-CLn,. 

8 >*sj t? ?iFI3~©£:*Vi~ °° 

± c ^ u <=> 

Al OC-'W. AAV» j ^ 

^ ¥ **.* i t 

Ttl 3 ^ ^ £P ” t 3 V c M7 3{ ^ 

•4 f ^ ^ tZ* tfft r ZJ( » Sn 11 Zr ^ 

Zc^l U |s^r:i f ii' - 

T J gMII A. 


«f 

« a ■ 

M7 

jsJ 

1 p 


uA 

ru 



X 

r 0 


P.G. 


ilk 

1 1 • 

AAN^ 


£T? g # jf.* -4 

~* ^ <w^ P-V 

^ -•* /WN/tA m M Ok, 

< <£|~i li 

^i« sf4!-5 

«*±£U®? 

/w*~ 4 - ujig 

=St| 

aJf f A < l £ lT 

^±l\/.hSlr. , „ /?—*— T^J 


6 *^ 
ct , £r 0 ( c 

£ o ?-m- t btt oL 


p-fr- 


1 ® 


91 -uWft*fC< 

■*■441-; i » 1 ~ f 

pj h£hu 

4< -t H iim (/1 / r 

C^73tL'^- lCf 

-2* ti 


?3 


db 9 

• C= 
w ^ 

At «-n 


94 v.i? £, , ^;" t ° 

cp 

Lzrf 

~lt f 
DM 


ATf 

"7* '~~ 1 - — ~ v ~' ~~ v 

nizr '-z^Ly >-* 

I 

-*J2 


A<W\ 

AaaA 


98 


3^ 




P- Pitt & 


AAAA /vAAA 

" > "’ r * 

( 1 ° ” 

J-V^.— tl 
tii-ilt of 
offe.r<.nj s 
G. 



•a • 


ft a.n 


• t 

M 

"ily 

•*— 

tr 

pr? 

r- 

?.«■. 


TT^f -LT—r^i^A*! 

uj^ :=ltr 

5?.“^ 

=??nK^^cPS4irB 

iibisK tX—U u 


a t 

:i 

0 


96 

A 


i £ 

>f 

ffl 

VW 

“4 

3 


9 ? 


ip 

/ ✓ 


2 

a, D 

& » 


•tit/f^iP- i^.1 ^ tf 

jpp 


A1 <X-H 


Ap/v ■' 
<A />v v ' 

A 

o 

i 


Pi 

/j 




/ 


/ 


o / s / ■' 

S//, 
■y / // 

*v- 


3/ 

'*<6. 

' G. 


I 

i £1 

111 *>. 


v -I V 77 

B f V? 

^ i* A<WA aaa* 

0 - -//-I ? j * r© 
-/"^T 5 —; ^ —a 4 till 

£ ^ 1 5 * «T 5 

A -<?T> >pP 


£E 

'^' w * . -A* 

I / « 


S'^. PI i rx 

7 » // r —^0 ■ A 

•T L 


aAaA 

~wf| 


41 


'^.r\ ^ '• 

■■‘I 'T'J 


•Cl- 


P.G. 


n m 


// 


)03 

ft 

O 

I 04 

n 

0 

105 

i 

© 

ffef 

« 

Al «n O 

Al a-n 


M cty\ 41 

4T 

✓v\ 

% 

l 0 

•0 

¥ 

(/ 

< 2 > 

P.G. 

Tn?-- 

« 

<1 

AAA 

\—-c 



P. c. 

P.G- 

< 


106 » 74 


u t±a 


trrwmtz 

t l i / LL-t Ai. 

sSsfS^* LT? 

w f H- f^ 1 — 4^ <rrs . ^ 


«3> 


— r- // 

?tiu 


— rwv* 

<3> Ow 1 - 

AAAA I A 


V-7^ 


bl-M.F. P. 










































































V 


ASSUAN 


107 )08 / ^ 3 o u- Lh. ^ VcuLLo-l/s of r-ocucL from, f-’h-t-lciz, to AsSLLCLn. 

^ _ - - / III 


cr *=> 

±U 

"S' > 

ill £r 

ST IS 

Ml 7 

II A 

iv l 

111 






=0 rr 

£ = M 41 

'fM S IT 
oK i a rz ^ 

m tr 

/VW' ~ 

n & -*- 

IT 


,f 




HO 


5 -T 

j thAd~-(j 

7 


OLA*- 4^ vi 

“0 I U Si .. . 
2P£ ®Ku 

/) nvcn-emajpPj^J^ 

sUU^jJ^I 0^ 

-A no 


>-j Uiy L 


O 

G. 


^ ttT 

M 

^Si T, 
d oaZ ^ 

<=» r p.&. 

■a S*JtL T i~- 

• 7 cLo-l-cet’ 

itfi i 

-TL^ fl.jttHexu. 

V 5 



c ^ ^33 ,w ^ 
'T Ttm 7n& 

X < } ^ 


* 

?! 

5: 


■ 

■ 


V f)ffi 




£LH- tHtln.y y 

^ Ao -r } £-* 

$ k^-LcL Ir^cM. 

^ &- 1 j (ll.tffcK« lo 


A 

I o 

lit! 

/VW*-N 

/V^' 

m. • 

P&- 


U2. V-l?, P 1 !-! >'■ 7 ,"*° 

^V~v m-~y^ « 



IIS' 




y ctr. D*.rvkr*.cLlcr !l[..ii8. 

6 ^ 7ow^art«.«L 
> —- 


,a M^ 

-!-»>E_ 

✓y\ \ 

& U ^ X 

v ’ 1 - 


32C±ir*g'4« 

Wi 


rsA^i 


1 1 1 


| 0 y «y <ce> 

*£ P ^ “ P 


# 
//> 


LM* 


“X 2 


ttsT k yf * 1 <P I y;A 


'7 






tTf 

<£> 

/f« 


o^iT 


¥ 


R.G- 


114 . v. 86,87 

AWW 


Zi* SR Jg TISfyi^LTT sTAS* 

Sfc£!£S.^A 4:4t**H* 

S' W It 4 J 7 SC 3C CT if ? ^ 

n " ‘ f JT ' 

■ 


£.(( 


^ ^ ^ 


«. _,_ A M'Zniir- f 1 T 

j? l «p/v-r-t^?r 

j, .r ^ tftt <, 'S' t TLJT™„^a 

..?J -t &M-=- -y - 10 — ± zC- tl y. "■' 3 

JA |zt/ill:ft~|l~sc. -t>K» 


116 

<x> 




P-G. 


118 

| -w\ 


u/?AK 

iiibxrr^^ 

i^srsri 

u*rc)4. 


I2.Z 


-f ««s?5n 


Alan 


M 

a 

>«/f 
^ J f 

1(H“ 

yW>A || 

I 


^ V 

X If 

II r 

pi «■ 

Ai ^ 


< T 

41 


P.& 


113 

T1 \W->4 
:ji IfiTI 
2 r| 

7i t* *. y 

k-a^Uv^r t^) 

CLW. 0 <snX **- cc L 
0u^.cL L a. cooLi v\Xj 

tZH* oLojS. 




p-fr. 


12-4 


AS^.4. 

-WA 

◄r 


p.&. 


17 




f 


ii<l 

m 


yia-rx. 


'//, 


KG 




I2.T 


*» >VVN /V\A /ws 

^□i £V| u 

f rn«ui-2. 

”0 


P-& 


116 


/W-v^ / // 




y. 


■ A' 

Jl, 

< f\ 

7 iVO 

y:«,c.cvx-y. 

P-C 


I17 ^■V>J<» ,# V 4 « 

- -I |X 

IHl^tl 


p.&. 


110 


/ffekAi«f 

f L ^>H r 4L 

n?i/f Pf 

iicr'im u 

tin 


n 


j— ybW 

— /VWN 

l-l ^ 


AJ 

APW t 
aaa 

X v 


^ nr 
= 

/^T PG. 


Ii8 






# 

M 

P-Cr. 


w. m ■ r. P. 















































ASSUAN 


V 


130 


/ Jou.the.yn )/ cl U e. y -s of y o a-oL fyoyy. P h. L l oLe. Co Assu-a.ru. 


life sUz u K 

Am-e-n e.™. a^> t oLclorr^J , Strukrt^ 
iiWwvj the. fcLrc. 


4 sY^e*m.ij, 
oz-e^icm 



if aw 


P.6. 


131 


M 


At a-vt 


tfH 


G. 







//>// -fl ? TP j{ 

6 7—' .__ 

^ -=» 

a O ~ I 1 • l * 


7/ 7 


/w^ 


d 0 


» <3 


y 


/V y ^ Z//PPZ ri *=? 


\bt, 

sr 

5 

4* 




Af. 


fn 

c2 

£ 

a 

i 

pf 

//o 

< 

41J 


135" 


^ lt* l!tflJTsf StfiLTisr*? ilJ 
^^iftTIPPSW/Zl JS u 
:i ” 


'I 


^ S X rn 

i i iil< m 


1-IW-T 

ZhTmrfim,^ 


**'/,' c—) _ 

7 ■; : 1 v« 

7 ,. ^ r- 7 

if n 

is i* ». 


138 


rw s * 


□ <=» 


in 

// 


7: \ ' 

£3 


ll^7a“Pfl3.TPP~1 


I3f 


‘■Z.lMrfA 


if 

I D 

z 

TP 

# 


ll 


71%. 




77 


14-2- 


A., 1 t_ | J & 

*c_ .U X 


Iciio? 


1 4-° v. t^.y^, ht-, t\. 7 

rrq 


Bfsfaurpttt* 

ZP^“IIP:i 


n 

G-. 


143 


H. 


144 


14-r 

7777? ff =! A -7 

C 'P 

*g o "f i ^ IN 

* ZsZ»~iy/ tl 

* c=> iSS. AS 77 L 14 6 

n T1 i ;; U 

? A 4 0 ^ iS~rn 




\WMt 

l '/s '// 

u '// " 

Z ///'*&% b. 


^ pp 


Z3 4 4 

pj) A ft n 


h A <k ^ 

/ <=x> <3> 

c« o 


7 x /, 4 


P 


P 


^ J=\£/ 

/fo\ 


a 
Ai) 




0 1 


i)uA/ve>rv —J 

CU/oyin^/JaMe^JtT^ —bL ^* 




m 

*v-« 

/ 


^ pp^ 

/VW^ V// ^ ^ 

^ Hvfi '/*■&* j 

/ 5p ^ e A c ^- 

tfl«i 

ffe 4 


,i7 viP« 7 TP 

4 a fls.sV£s.‘.'^PP 5 
4-*r<m^rs£ji-i| 

4 *Y 4 -‘$,VC///A / /, 


IPS 


dP “V<ff r» 

iW 5P t7 T1 4 

~ °4L 

(y^TTU COyy. /u-S€cL) 




I 4-1 


s?. s Pi;riA«&r¥i7i 

AA i^A ?/ ’^ !r ^ ^9 

n-f n. ' o. o *■ = * <3C3. pv 4 “ 

sA It “I 
pp^ <= jiSLir^iU 

~eas AC -- --- c=> LL* 

“J —j 4 ^ 53 ? 7 f 

^ 4 T n «S 


4. 


,4 ' 8 J ^>0 

-*y . - .—N^r 


■4 

i ± H ~ £ 


sp 

3*7lIi» 

PP S 17 P o. 

■=*> a 

a (ft ^vv% 

3? izp 

UP 


wy. M.r. p s 



































ASSUAN 


VII 



w . M . f, p. 



































ASS U A N 


VIII 






























































































ASS U A N 


IX 


2.4-5 


P 


Veil OL a 4- Sou- tlx. of C oc. m. jo A S S u. ol n-. 

n: '*'*:i^ii^af * ! ' J u 

X <rp ^ 


* ^ • 


Tffjr 7f Mm ^ ^ ■ 

W W « * ^ :8f 


n 

L. t i yrs ct. -w, 6*> c /*-€. 

L J 


7 2> <*- “- y 

f6*~-ry. Q-ot- tlx. 5o V j fc-wc <rV L <f t- v»_£*- 


f & 




ttttJ 

// <=» (jjjj 


P 


7 •> 


° "vv- 5 <x-" 


_cZ /~ ex- tk e-)r (S 


G-. P. 
P. 


245 


u 

O 

Q 

't' 


0* 

Z4-7 


A. c. y A. J CLn- ol S to n.e. Sou. tL -ive,s£ o /" c«- »«- A- i41 4 


41 


AAA 


ft 


^ ^ 0!-$; 


f Wl'fg 

lj^ L vS 

& 


P-& 


i4« 

4^2 # 

<?4 ' 

ar£"l 

?£. 


"’<£ f O f 


ifirt 

<3T 

□ 

33> 


11 J 

ff 

4 ? 

—a*. 

'ni 


V5-o 


'^C 


is 

^7 

u 


253 


f A 

k 

£<£ 

4 > 


/? 

256 

OOCcLsccLz- froir. ca.xoo 

4? 

tZ> (ru. <-j. 

Aisa\ 

p- &• 

157 cj 

?( 


^ P.&. 

/?l \fe.r S lcLu. -roc 

'"J.IP \M„ 

X l^AoW COCOVX jo 

'4^'ZJlL 

161 

1 

fc. T - n *. 


Z41 




y s o ux. th of A 




Ra.iU.oty- n 
- A an A A ^aL 
SU~l^<j, 

ran 
-5^0°) 


A CLC 

St<*.rul 


A 

Cjip 

nan 

CKO </0 


u>vcA 

OL yve^ivc/ 1 . 


PP 

■cr? 


143 


itr rr 

'fjN /jass^ /O 

i mw vwvm r 


s s u cl re . 
144 


£2 kMi 


4fc». 


^34 

y>i! 


ij^.5 Pr^^If^ Jrf 



fA? 


l-fjr 


77ffer?^£<^ 


^i~<-f=TA2.4 

i*i2.<Ui<El/*iA -j ft% 

fcrtll M?5 
-=4H««r f ~to ft fe. 

HUP U •rAZ t nQTT* 3i JJ? /f 

l-tHLMSPSSiWSWsfc 

I4*£1ilil*i KNWSW K 

S Tiniiuiiwaito - 

ItftlS^&riMigniii 


2.A3 

Conii>iu.aUeh o/ 
/> -r e. a t ou i ^ <x_ Li 
OtU i 1 i »>cA 


X'fcitlst.lftieirt'UR 

IJWa 

4Tkl ~ (TiuPPW ^4 4'P™ift 

^ Ilk I w, if^T 4141 

-er<-fclir*^»x:il*s.^“IifcT««lll 

ffl 


rni'e wlp b4?r LT-rf<g' 
tym-MvMff [flippy;' 1 !!<6 t>| 

' v 4€ -C ^ nr* m«i) pc-f J, 

- UTLT^cfrP^^^i 

4(«SiMU i * T tT “ 4fl P U 2? 

■■' 4; W-A/tfffJfffttf&MA ^ 


l-rcd 


i-VK A 



'- 4 r*LT «P 


T W* s k. oft «v i J VI + j 4^. t-f i- 6 AL 4 . 


W.M.T « 




































ASS U A N 


X 


b CL Cj S 0 UL. th. of 




ijtfsT A.L4 


Jl* 


* rn^ i™^k 
5 V 4 « < I I AW\ 



, /w\ 


u 

ior~<<y=#:rii.f^ 

WjJ^e-UtM ^3 3 4^ 1 ! 9 1 

ITT «s®S8SB» < 26 ss£ ~ 1 1 Ti. v 

3lT/E?ilWH^|!5^ 
Ilf a ll^#yi~ri)|)jl|£i 
SSWSUTISfillMtS 


2.70 


A JS LL CL TL ■ 

“u f * rr.^~=<? ^r a^-I 

IX 

}wif;m>0 *« «?jt 

. ¥J£t i K ! ( ^ 

4(£l\ZStZ4ri±'7& 

'AJifmAO~£mtilZ.£\* IP*» 

Ilf Z\k ift 
, s Ti: j?MTTl^aT 


n czz 

t j 7 ** 


vj 1 


(l°l/^g r lf^ u~!bfo^jAS[^tg^ 

■~aA 

A 

&h 


If 

'T 7 

( 4 « 

LJ 


IP. 


N t- a. r 



'—”* /vv\ X) 

7~»! -w 


fflJA —^ 


/V^\ AV\ 

1 * A 
M 


p. &. 


tk e. y cl 1 L 00 ol ^ 5 E~ ql- Cl o 

tTJJF^T^l-tiAU 

Hi ^ 4. ZZ <=--- u If • 

/v*W\ ^-- 1-- v --'’ ^ V" S^*S*S A | * 


Man 


•m 7 ^ -• A P P £ 
iliis ZZ/Pztf, 


'//A 


JL 




m 4 

T 

o 


V/ 


5=^ 

A 

PP 


P.G. 


* 74 - 


3 


it! 

M<Ltrn.e-S 1 — ^4 -^yL^- 




TocileL of Me.vioLe -2 
fncj yccv i.ol. on. c,clt~Ll t,r- p <. 

$ ki,nJ l y-uCj jDo^Li.yy^f>s c-it lProLC.e.i< 

■2.79 


of tfl t 

3 - 7 r _, 

% t 


to w n 

& 


A s S UL CL n. . *~<t S*.* 347 -*■ 


. <h 

M 

Wl 

...4 s 


£2 

¥ 


-M 

/'A 


nn^r 


w 



^ ^ f 


^ LJ 

Mtthl 


p. 


uE* 

£3 

aaaa 


4! 


¥ 

£V» , 

p. 


V 

A CL^Lcd 

CLnol joa-rtcoy 1. S of offer 
V e.y-y icL- rtje. e,oL-r-Ly 
L n S cn f> tl o n. j t b w /■£ zaL 

f\iso St,V(.-ra-L c LLc.Cj lLI-4. Jo a-Lcyn./s Je~S tZ 
fu.trLz~ts U 1-tk fyoLC^e^S of f oTfn tr tnscrfpfo»u C a.r to it c,U e.s of St-fotcLk? 


x 7 8 


XI ¥r 

:u 


KLn.iyna, V, ^3 f f - J “•’ 

Aeit^^/H \ / I \ a. d o r t 

S tcLytcUng 



//£-*£ fn-scTt-j^tloy^ cl 

jo Ol-Z C >V\ yS 3 e.^Z~ ryyy.LA-C,lr- 
Cd yx. f LL $ 4 .cL : iV 




P.&. 


/'n /I 5 S W. «, TL. 


- 

a s a ■- 


281 


^ap-O 

p.&. 


<£<i It 


?.&. 


2 . 3 Z 


tn<£ 

l<i 4 ‘ 


P. G. 


MFLL 


^ p 


w.m.f. a 














































A 5 sS U A N 


X 


2.8S* 

-i 

k 


/ 3 S u. OL n . 




u 

H 


(N, 


A 


AZ: .-Z 


^2^ 

i 


‘Htl-T tTSiZZ 


U i^-3sr 3-i 


^ 1 —* 1-. 
u ~~n *— 

IH'^SiSin A 


Z 

f 

P. Gr. 


ct eeLi! t«.ti«nj 


/rfZ?W 


AWS 

u 


§ 


m 


z 


cn 


Z 


P-G 


2.^1 


tn-cLs 


vtmzhi 


C~1 


Tf f?frai^aTW?Al* 

* I •"ft ^ 

■up ~1 m 

* ■/* iw, 

^ ^ ^ 

il *jc 

u _ s; 

lit ll*ir 




<1H" 


V- 

V- „ __ 

f. 

t,g<LL 

Ci^<LU«)P<g‘Ey<|': 
Pxf ~ iM«tf <S — Z V 

iiwsszo-i- 


“V - 4 J TF.-tZAli 

—r~ y "—' ~~~ '*7? |)~~ 

^ A k 

/r ~f M nit#!' 

£<L A*"” rr -1 — ft (ft,. 





m 

TIC 


P. G 


v- 31 


t yt t l /er. 

ffl 


bid 

uortF 2 

#*• 


1* 

» 


S* of 

Z9 4- y | ^ 

:4 

te 


^ n 4 'J-? 

“P xx 

/VNA 1 

-K tl 

«:£i-* 

fl = 

S & 


iAy^ rvn -i 

J ® W/ III ® 1 

_Q_ ' _ 


/WV* H 
/WVS 


_I 1 » 


HUH'A 

iT 

§> 

„ 


/I 

5 »fi? 

5 ; —fl .!_! 

izrrr 

EP 


lyi. 


P.Gr. 


r?fM 
IIA 


P.&. 


/v^A /^/-\ 

LJ l^i -»■ A A 1 «i ♦** ^7*. /v — . 

mm-uxmsk 

%)A^\rt\^ eft 1 

ZZv''-' '" "* : - 

nap^-feK^, 

ZSi ' 


>///, 
yvy -'Z 


xzZkzZ/Z 
xZZZZ '- 


Z-, •< 




-;^ 


H.H5R3S2^JTAi* 

Ui^itTStS A <-=-/6 

“I—j„i,i.Z 

HCMC£ftU£ V 

iSWirJitW^ 7 

^riu-rJZ|g { ti 


rWi 

■ AM 


29G 




U />— 

J Co . tr ^- cLi . v^Cj 


< 


P-G- 


•2-97 




•';-; >-r. 


p -- A 

3 - ■ # 

s \ HI j| t 7 = 

T“J " 

y^’in v ^ 
^X' H! 'n 

UUI J/ -CXX ^3, 



E L e~ ft h- CU TL t L TL (L . 

•“ j ^ 


X-^-ct 5 ^-^ 3 0-9 - S ’ 2 .. 




a .6 ooi-t i }^n,t 

LU>r. d GrT thju 

14 t q k. H c l *- . 
J p&. 




P.G. 


On iCLnol-stone- /> e. Lo ui to yn ts on. /V, tr at nk. t 

<? ^ijj fi|t^ 


"A W 

piia 

wf 

^ i. 

4^1 


w m .p p. 























































NEAR ASSUAN 


XII 


E L 


P 


h 


cl n t l n 6 


3 o« 


On. opposite, sicLt fifths. 

Sa,rv\e. r a cJe aw the. ne.xt 
th r e-e- Cou 6 Le~-C$ , 



S O 9 


3 »0. 



// 


Al®> 






P^7a\ 


/ / / 


5 I 4 X 

KWDII 



S C CL l t . 


2 0 




4 S 



m 






1C J 


« /f 



ft I 4 Anim*—■ i 




3»3 


E" m t / e north of L .s h. Sh-e^oLLcLi. out o cut 5 lx yn dus north ohAosotcun. 


P'S 1 to 


314 


t-P' 


44- 


hi 

3,6 x 

p. 





M 7 


3)8 


/I b o u- t 8 ?rn le-S f- r o r>\ A S S lccLTI 


49 nQrm 


3 lo 




mm lu 

I rx fQHf' i 



32-1 


hi i <j A pcttk aJooVL nvur on cliff fcLc^ i !o m.t,l<>.s north of /i-ssu-o-n 




® * 







PU 

f\ 


o'er S f>ut£ 


n 


31 . 3 . 


04 Kill , 

o >x {iloik., 

nixt ft f o llwixj 


31 J 


0 n o >t<_ . L L o ok 


- HI 

0mAfA 


"E l\(? A 


3 -L 6 


ifEo't RE 


3 i« 


/SrrB 

/rrrr 



33 a 


4 ^ § ui^S-tE fv 
^ t ft/ ("S A SiE? 


31-4 


J LULffl.^in 

n 0 rnr rrT ,. 


3v 7 

1x2 

J =Ufer HEo-/. 

r£A-14 AT ^ ES+ 

331 

/\ A [ 

<IM|H . 


W . lvi . F.P 
















































































ASSUAN 


X 


krr$"-*L- 

fr?t 


SI 

M K .. 


331- 

Ixj 


Kowois.o 




m ~r 

^ fl u. 


3 3.4 


B ij xA^. 


n w rfth ^ t ?Q£ ea 

& * Tn —• (T\ © ^ ’ 


f 


TTT A *2’ ^ i 
fe|| ^ 

K| S ^ 

-S.. 1 ' 1 — Or. 

4=U sLy 

» y > VT <a 


r "i 


33 S B t ' ^ B ■ I 

i p 3 >„ s 

l"k 

3-?®SaA 


O is 

45 


rsx 


1 * 


ITT 


337 


S 


57 


4 7 SI. 


A o <*. d- ^ «-v 


/XlCa 


l\ a u. cL va,LL*~ij <► 
338 / 

i* 1*S V 1& 1 





% 


fa 

mn 


S M*\U 

j'p v=> ox -f 

4/-1 

A v fl_u-y^-trY*y\ 

--'y 3 t’wxvs.oU^ 


/<k-»U.T*v«. 

Se^fcU- 


/S 


fcOCT" .PA. L L H-e. 

337 


£ <£ ; 


: 


||-« X^Ta 


ill# 7 

X? A 3 < '/TT u fe 


G, 


34° ^ 

Tfl 




ft o «- cA v ex. i L Ph.iL 

\ o o a n oi 

I O f 


-O I 


cc £. A S J CrC a. n_ . 

>+' J o 




„ ^ :$A %> T <1 4 

^ ;>. 'A' f 4 <fp -r ^ > /? 4, /i 

#/P ! -'nX.— 1 ^.4 «r /> „ 

X <- , r? V X ^- ;?i) ^if <[ i 


rv> 


^ ---*** <fc An ^ >°, 

f #t iHi--?* x/tSp 

^ ^ T? X jj / <5- ^ ° V n t “fcf 

S ^ ^>.^7 w ^ = SP sA PP ' 

TL _ ywN Jim 

H-l ^ 


'?;/ /v^w 


_ ?A/€ 
=4 

l—^ cSM- 


h.F ^ t 

cz 

^ <f- >. x 4" 

— ^ jtd 44 ~ o€ « 


T 

d A o 

AT 


V“P 


t I) 


V i j 




A, 1 


^ OC 7x-c»^ J 

Ac" m. e c. 

34. ^ 

343 

Jr* 




/vnA* 

t'S, 


• 1 

G 


1 


3 44 

ittT 

Tn 


G>, 

4 


3 4 s * 

<=>( 4Ak 
& Cl 

^i<; 

u 


4 fTS-^Uoi 


^ m Oi.cLo *• I •* ej 

JOduomu. 

4 I ^ 

L-t^L<roj o loL tc~uj>y. . 


Pi 


S tx- ««■ W . 


348 


■3? «l M 

III — tbfj 

■^—4 AW i 

n ft & 

5 o i LfllAlH 


F~ L e_ j? h. ol y^~ c ?-*- <2- . 

8 n 3 si- 




i ^ 


i tii wr 


i&i 

# 


/i j j w. a v>- 


£Z. 


2>S~3 


M^+^rtrAl 

Jt2d 

XI 


* / A | 

J i i 


n 


UJ 

^ a - 

I I - 


3 >'4 


vss.c.TliffteHU 

^ ^.p i LJ 


X 

<£ 

tf 


/ <fP "■•> ~j 


12r £ 
□ 


t. va-cA . 


r l 

<0> 

«=k 

■WVA 

u 


El 






/\ J J u, a, >L 7~ o >J r\ 

iT^fSSh^Ai 


^ U 


/ 


Tr^^| SI If/ 

44 p p ^ a — — i£ 

? “ fiP ^!!P* S ^ 




PP 


I 1 \ 


Ps PP 


-iXilS ii 

XjSPof ^P 

4^ ? P 4 <1- 2 

pp ^ “p 

p ^ PP 


<? 


G-. 


VJ.M.F P. 



















































XIV 


SABA R1GALEH VALLEY, 4 MILES NOF SILSILEH. 
































































































































































































XV 


SABA RIG ALLH VALLEY 


4-L4- 


lil 




4vf 


7 £ 

id ^rn^grtiu 


A-17 


vl n 


\ \ 


x^vU V 


**». 


'j 1 i <f o ^ 




A Ntj I lil l'l 

,| Hi V AlJW 

\1 ,"i <JjA g. 


i p^s 

y-gw 


g-g kuiKBta 1 ^ 

THiAh' T“ 5 


^?KKiE3)$f f|i- ! i "'V 
f - < 1 1 , ^ n 




4-4-7 


y 

- ^ &. 


off af^'IKY 

*£ [ I f A f &• 


x> cL iV u 

~ g t — s <=> 

<* < t y ° r; 

T ^ « — , L /t ' 

cr 


n n n 


III III 111 & p 


~*\\\ua\ 


i i<^= pjT^^JrXp 


4-4* 

f 1 


44 J 

iBp ^yt o. 4>. 

TP 

P -r \. 

4ri _^ 

1HX 

la*"*] 

HI <f 

V s - E * 

- Gr. 


<?& 

°LW 


-y~ J j 


— CD $7l dl 

*7 S7 


* 


TT 7 a 

^ G. 


4-65- 


461 

T1<*C/ 

id 

46>- ^ 

yy 


4^3 

yy 




/r U CLi , 

4.1 zv — G - 


4 : (ri <7 


4 ‘7 

o 0 d c±=3 

L]A 1 l_ 


+7' ^ 

,xY <? 


465 


i yn 


t n 


n. 


77 


*7 


o 

& 


o _p 
li k=l 



* ( & 

+74- , 

_7 

mm "Z_^ 

^ V I ^^7 _ 

jy^'n 

(ScLKkkkci.y'ct 

. M 1 -1 

"T. 7t-«?S P td. t >& T7E5 

' H____ 47‘ 

31 tSx & E - T 

-^=yy. 

— " 1 4«l 

4*» i. „ 0 — 


sill ISSB'T/u 

I* - ^ .giBvy 


G. 


O I __- <r^> ^ | 

^7 nL 
4 >>>.. , 7 L 


ff. dl 

7 L P 1 £ 


4t< 


4- 


^ G, 


§ n (b 


r H *Sc □74 — ^ 

r.^431 


& 


7/777 t c l p e ft-r-t - t 7 fa 4 *- 

/ * s ^ - - -- --- " 


77 SfT t- 

4^4 - 


Wi f ; -T3 1 . 

^ w 

77 

°z5 


&. 


ilms 

PPmM 




JT-fT- 
%TS 



o <=> /B ^ 


O 

G" <$> 


'1 

ta 

y.' 


48S 


<trn <en 

^LPiLlfe 


w .M ■ F. P. 













































































































































































































E S SABA RIGALEH. XVI 
























































































































































XVII 


nr 


aiL-fi 

nr 

U 

fnf-n. 

i n 

~r". 


NEAR THE SABA RIGALEH VALLEY. 


TTE --- 

H /TFT_LLUit j %xJT 

”7 IK. ^ .. " 


«E 


S- 4 S- 

4 


t n T/ u r) 
m) L^/TAa fi-fp. 


O G- 


c3 


&. 


^ ^ VWN P p 

lU q 


fvJo 


P-*. 




L 

5 SI 


L 


5 - 5 - 4 - 


r3 >-- 

ml 


ir? < i ^ > 


W 


cilZrEfli.-rl' 


^[1 


s-rr 


/C /S/ ^"0 F- 


54-8 

1 cn 1$ *»\*i i r ft . 


^■TU 


p.4 




1 IB 


o 


nuiiii[is±^®flrrv 

JT/vT-(Gl^nn/.|44|) 


oNIAoc £ lc H A 6 £ N £1 C 
Ton oP aa 0 n| m(.CoPh K.^ 

6 V P r t n«c //^ci n& 




54T. 

(ipmiiimnno} 


54-^ 


/#?«!} 


TGft *□£!,, 


BRDfL bT K 


‘K~P<=z^42 ^ 


TPPPft 


To VC MC-TANOYC A I 9 0 VC r//S//'SS‘ 

n NXUJN Fa fcICTHM 17 V\HN ////// 
Tov KVPl »V A n 0 AA lO J/ /// ///,/ 


Fro S <z~L «_ F L q cl. Le^k- 


54 4 


rro 


Y^£ o n p . 



rp -«^x> p 

T-i» -—- m 

£ 

~ @ 

A. 

,^\ U H 


i O 

r F^J c=4 »!!-=> 

W 

T P 

G. 

r 6 o il 


B I 


_ v 1/ /v U —I I/ 1 - ^ 1 11 1 " (2 j Yy-^p*— v (v 4 P-&. 

Lat N Af r gl^BA J“ AsTAa(J"‘rt4n!:‘g^-te,r‘’T^^a:LP 

r 7 o -*— — — — ‘ * 

1 . . .* . - ...... . 571 -—-- Mr - ---- 


1_ / A A MTU) NlMOC MCCoPH L 7 T“A A M Tu> N l N U C i K 0 4-AM(XN.v'//- i 1 ' rJ7> 


RHa NTuiy/'/^/'^ ov KAK^poc 
£ 15 hvA t ///, / / /- 4 € I QT<? <H OPMONTNC 

A&7 l. //<v (////' c N £/ h I Kc. K.A 

TAto ■'/////'//////7 4 4'CA» 1 0 VC 


> » 

ct ruf 

/Tss 


7 U 

h. ' 

P 


PIP 


£ n A Ftk © u 

i/x-<y/>£fty g. 

L-IA ANTwN INK 
*T* X 0 Y PA 1 0 C (j. 

nAxoyAi *c 

n AHd k-vync; 

f 77 & 

s 73 

AMAAOJM loH 

G 

AnoAA w M 10 c 

T’"“ NIK “ 

AnoA/UJt Hfv 

APXiKHX4NlK f c, r , 

•rye <V G. 


M I A oC /"' T oN 0 P MoN MtCo PH VCC 
_ TioYTlI . AA I _ c, 

XKy NlCri£Y£C0E UV r 

n^xo Ybi c: &. 


/) >-'? j —#1 1 _ o rii J ^ s - 

_A>'* ^ Ll^h A o al 0 ^ 6.Tfl ^ 'j ffi^ fir 

"Ffil ■—----= L --==- 


6. 


553 


5 5^4 


T at-Vo rt ouY’cL ul S C.L £^A_- 


xgo+M^4 ef i< ^ s> 


n C-Tf C & £l c &. 


X a 


40> 


1^3 c/2- 


pp 


ttjjl 




g-H-—T * —x r 

"T niKLAXOC ri»AVAf/ <tT ? 

G-. 

"1 

N 40 " 

L ■ 

GTZ - ‘——-— i 

n a a n e 1 c g. 

iE* * ^ 611- 

J 

613. 

6 . 


1 | ^t -4 4 i g 14 ° + 




fj tfcEfa. 


4 » A J‘ ,4 r 

T . 16«: 


^P/ r 

S i* 

•<p 

G 


' 6 p^ r\\,'//',fi_£^g}H f>LRf in 


s. 


s-87 

CL 


.r m<o 


xL. s. 


UPP S 


ounc. S)1. .y^A/NCoNHoVC 

Toy n € T ocip,c Hr ’ n GToC( P| c 

aMHc 4- Toy ON HoYC. 

Tovonucvc g. 

'¥G-TAfS’ 4 

”V//^nf^nti., 

6<50 


T5Y- Ll, ^L2 L ^ ! =n—». 

hn° 

'Qrd 

T 

'”^c=£?n4 ^a- 4 +f. 


*1 


<S-^L 

‘cf 1 L 


“fit'U 'A FF£ J‘pTSPfl^LQf 


6oj 


fc!S = (L 

i'&llSi 


6 p S 4 $ 0 9 

S'- - sir ^;fap s . 




P & 








..-•»i rri^n>T4&"#^ 
TTfilWf LC. ^4@J5i* 


fS7t b k H ft ^mii<&. 


, i i L s l / e. A . , 

6 i) a 


T 

0. 


,^^ f )i^L^i^nrtiA E5S> 


‘> (1 ^ f (E^p« 9-52 .«lP tSl 

--- 

Qls®D3 &: 

TT l£TO K A H EY WEN oyr H K^sf£T NTJ1I KB LnAXANl© 
i n P& 

CTX^PoC/iUJN 

xpiCTiANivN 


p?l 

pp 




3r 

? 

Tl u 


A 37 

MU 


n 


CcL> o J’o >V1 «_ 




"* kLTl- 

L U)£fr., 

Y*ȣTnn 

R^sfiL- 

A4-° k ^ 

•^n nn *• 


K y F Yf u^T 


7vu O </ 

/u. tro <f i\^ /> l\ 


64* 

;V.-. N1 k h fat 0 c > 

0 // 644 . 6 4r 


-p ^.nisr.s. 


ivv Ao kolo" 

0 / ^a7-iou.s /-\TT I ( 

Frcnch r**~ «- vt-. ® 4 /r 



^ P 


646 




64s 

JTAAT uj n 

Gf/AGJrSoC 
H KUU TTA f A 
TMM(-ri(TAH 
3C-ANChM 9 IN|p. 


/f I 

' f A cn. Ao jlL 




A/a 


,/ /?, 


>-o^ A^o/trHiCLt (.*_"**—hi*. 


ti^x. 


W. P. 













































































































































































































































































































































































































































JJ3 


//.op O e, or £^_C a J J e. c ' r~- 

H P O H I ^ 

LA X o i AKoTAHLl CA Pil 

--------- P. 


G R A F T 1 T I AND QUARRY-NARKS. 


68 J ) S b o- y oL ix. . 

C O 6 OC 


NeoUt A1 tJ^L . 

R/T W H A £XDl neBBIHN 

(c-MNok/x nepczATNAV 

e**-*-* 1 u«.«; i A ta n h 


/ *S b cL <*- 

ARA 4>0 I 0A M 

M U) N * M N A.TTA 
TT M O Y N// M NATTA 
6 A A A | p£‘. mn 
A n aA WTO 


6^3 


XIX 




/ s b o~ tj <Jl cl 


' OH 
MniQf 


/. 




HAPIMA A/\e_7 

m/js PocuynoyToc 


•e-A- . A?4- 


P ft- 



At<« 

rp amhmat a a x ph Mat i ct octcc h 
HP A M M At A A X P H AA A ti CToceccpi 

-—_ p 




S“ lehL e^yotf. )[/-sicie //n-/Z 

0?7 


So^tL jforcoyo^cL. 

c«j u-V'JtJ L~<-Qr A»e.y“ / / 

! 'qo U _, k. c A /1-e,y* 




k^^Tl^ot 

I /I Lc.cy> 


703 



1 8 A P 


A 


f 3 4 . . , , c d oe roe e_ ^ s e_ u_ A-LcJes 

7)1 -li -fy D-H3I-I 

7 A. A“ A /) / 11 s. i us . A,. a f fUTZlZil -- 

I®h/ /<2 P-qxsis “©l ‘^©”ef ®t 
1 ' ©f' t'©tfX^©E0' L- ieX- !|Lm® f ©|® [4' 
11 e Xf 7© l"llei ”oefi-gwer 'if-e/gj J^p'iep 

tf '1 Tl e rSTf "H * '“"••rTerTTftfT'T 


|4-4 

T 


X> c -re.cLe.ra-L ^ SS » 
t? >t ct-/^ o x e ■ j? y Lo m. r"7 I 



£4; 


L 4 . d yt_ ^ 0 ^ 




^ ^ SilsiUTTt^r u -*- 

“ ,,n,c ^ o -•oWW-fe© 


7-*- 

r^NRo 1 


7- r 


A? * H W A7 • E3- 

^ « 


76 77 roe. I , £ a. st So L S t La-la . 4>x 

8 fts s ' 

(W1 




\ J 













kt: 



n^> 1— ■ / 'no 


/>«. l l a:/;, ? u.*-Ay ■ 4 rr7| a 7? 

or-iLoo, AJ-ofAssu.au.. / \ 


/OTTB’BTST:) 


-_IXTL 11.3 


/4 *<-«• >T. J 

Jr'ccnif*. jU(cirry 


& 


ctta-rrY 

7 *UXrils 
CL U 

P. 


u/. m. r. p. 


















































































































































































































horus names or ka-names. balances 

7 f 



WcfcJx K<* 

of A t t tn 

k*- * to k. 


Ra.yyy.e-ss u H 
cL.-n.ci A .ti /<<* 
(B oc tk) 


S l rn l (ct -r Ha. fccjivre.$ ^ 
To-h.utyvt.esJJ. eJ Rak-rc, 

A e. n. I\ 1 1*-/} m ) to y* tr, 

A <■, to yyy- k, 

Ji CL yy\. e 5 S U U l) 

'/z-sfrcLS can EsnzJi' 
a-ncl cvs a cLi/d 
Am. e.n k o . J.u.xet. 


n Jri 

Utc tl\ K cl o/ 
7eU k U.t »Vl CS H 
jDe.ii" eJ. £> <xAft 


1 

a 


J 

A 

?=■' 


Kcvof HaJra.su. .2>e«V <U BcJxri. 0 rn. 6 os. P to Le^ymy XHt E JL f 

D e. ta, l 15 of 

~E) ^ ■ -4- O'— 

| <— - -5lt*|<enston . 


Jimi/a/ K cl Cj y r, u-j? s _ 

3 S&JrcI ( Ka-r n.JLk K e _ c Le.sce,h 

2. H-ccth-c ss p. U r Ka.yn.cLk JJeyy 

Ptol C yyx y JH i K ol r y\ cA-k. t 

2-Prie-nn.y Km. fifu. 
libe-riu-s , PkilcLi. 



r *. 6 e-~y t. u s . 
Ph. c L a-i. 


& t-n-i - X 


cl J a n. 


Xl! :l y ■> 


Tke.le.s XVIII 
T /> >vi £ 3 f. 



T IvL^^a-t 

tz tLit V e-T ttcxnj (Ay a/ 

£o u-e- . 

TA- <L.be-S , Xvill oL y 

r« wC*. 34.. ’ 



TkuhtLs XV III J-ifT 

('jlL-n-k y. 7 8) 


Tkc-le-s . X \llll n 

T « m. a/ Mt-v-L 

y/ M.r. p. 































































































































































































































































































































































































































































N S C RIBED OBJ ECTS 


XX 



1 

<14 

o 

2 


AT 

o 




H 
4 4 


3 


•* 
q 1 


as 




ii 


» 1 1 
ip 
Q& 
fit i 
Hk 


A 

Sfc 

H 


(np 


trj i 
S=« 

Wt 



r U N E REAL CONES. 

3 

ft 

Q 4 

o 

"Si 



4£ 

_______ 

5§ 


1)^ 

qra 

P4 


■t > 

r-* 

O 


Ol -a. 


$ 

'i 1 

<Vv> ( 

U 

SLt -4 

Wjltt.-* 


g> 

qq 


JJS 

f.* 


n« 

1 /VWA 

V I 

'O’ i 

-A 


$ 




g. 


of 

© 

1 


& 

§J 

5 


SHV 


% 

J 

<rrs>» 

1!I 

O 


q? 

u 

0 
ts_5 
1 1 1 

Q 





$8 


9 

qq 


ja 

if 

>W*AA 

fl^L 

“ MVf 


o 

L_J 


I 

| AA^ 


J2g 


10 

'll 

o 


2 


JL, 

_5? 


Kf 


/Wvy 

I l I 

//M/'s 


P2 

fep 

i i i 

q*» 

5 


£ 


a 


f i 


r 

m 


m 

m 


a 

Pi 


& 


12. 

4 


/}« 

a 


n i 

V 


A\ 


13 


jJ^l 


■y 

fl«a 


S' ✓ 


Ik. 


Y 


ty 

A'WV 

£ 


14 

K>>y 


ji 

8 

*cjr> 

>K 

ii 

ii 


v.' 


15 


Ji 
PP) 

f Em 


A 

i i 

4§ 


I ' 


i i t 

.■/&*// 


% 


16 

ii 

o=> 

a 


pji'K f, 

x» 

if 


w Ai.r p. 
























































































































2.6 


$ 

2 ! 








31 




O 

u 

o 


10 ii 


u, 

a i 
/!« 




34 

O 




€ 


4 




67 


flTiLS.., 


artp 

*“■ lifts 


?¥ a & 1 -ww 

;f 


jTrijfH 




O 

f i 


70 —E? 
^—i ^ vx n 

AVW^ 

1SSo2^ 


W424W 

flftSIJ 


W M F. p 











































































































F U NERFAL 


v 


ft Pi 


7Z 




‘Cl 


■nq 


5 Jv<° 


73 oVi, 

H<§> 


WWi 

t M. 

6 (T OU 

iai 

i. 


74 


CONES 

75" 


XXIII 


AM 


~cdL 


ffUg 

feu , 


7 ‘ „ ss QQA-g# 

^E4%a 7-:‘42i 







ao 


vr^A^jyv / 

if<H ilL, 


-*• 

0 






BrK^n^k 

[EtMtiSS; 

riipa-.ni 

oU 1 



s ‘ftQt|<n^. 


\% 

in 


sp 





9? rpM /3S»- 

9t »im'VS 

97 *H!l2 H? 

ftl fiJ V f ^ 

iifvisMQM 

litiJltS HP 


S3qsa\qsMii 


-->f H — Ki ffi 



PM= 

»z 

a-:r Hfl „ 






































































































































XXIV 


P c y l. 6oios u/cu-Li. 





w. m. p p. 


























THE EARLIEST COLUMN, AND LATER CAPITALS. 


xxv 



CLt <5 * -2. fi- A. . 

5 V S' 



h/. M. F P. 




























































































































































WEIGHTS OF MEMPHIS. XXVII 



w.M.r. p 











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































WEIGHTS OF MEMPHIS 


XXV1I1 








vv. m . r. p. 













































































































XXIX 


N 



PjjP >*4 


■ilivJJPfl"/ 

"^,.1] Isi.rb?. 

61s 4*6 

xiv- 

, 2 | | f i, |S2, -L b7, 

TJ 4f-l 268 ,268- 

x 9 o- 

fj ^ 74, ION 164 

Ivrrqri 67 ,. 

Cy/ZM z6 7 

1 C • 

L a £( 2491 6 i 6 . 

q 

L 1 ft D 1 } ^ 7 2 -JI. 

(] 115.Ib3. 

L q a^> 74 , 106 , X 68 

46- 

• H cj>qi| 6S -1 

P’X 4b3. 

x /| ft D> 667 , 670 , 

2 62. 

• I) ^ □ ® f| 1 ] s' 64? 

1 1 'V 

1 o>^ isx 

1 ft 88 

L 1 0 

1 ft l)« '?4- 

i ft 5-; 56,7 6 

Iri > 284 - 

c\/ J#^P ^0 

^=>, S4 

fl ftaPT 39 

51\ 

l) ° 'V 

iT 1 ^ 4S ? 

1 ^ o m/m 1x6 

^ 34 S , c^rvoi. 2 . .> 

36X 

^ c^X 7 

J-Sv 19 

— Co-v*- 8 ' 2 *7 

0 

438 

n Li, n n 5 - 1 , 160 , 270 , 35 ^ 
* h kr M 9 5 - 37 , 0 ^ 10 b. 

• 

1 ft .aPT ?1 

1-2,244 

f) ^.xv rn 

2 q ^ q 51 , 29 ?, 249,303 

1 26?- 

x 649 

q^> 8 S 3?4. 

„ ^ J 3 0 T>, 6 o5^ 


9*... Mi? is*. 

I| ft>'* S& 

1 } fttnjEI t - 7 a ' 

L 8 6 , 2 . 6 ^X 70 , 

!| ^>P—^ i 7° 

W¥“~ 
l ~ 61 

• J 4-S3 

- U % « s 
L I) J i) 148 

ft 

*‘ 1 # **'.■ 
*/3lJ 2.^7 

■ dflJfol ^8 


dex OF NAMES 
" s - ,br 

2 ^$^=^ 4 1 47 

l\%*=‘*- 3S 

I] “ c ^-39 

1} “ r£, 7 

/ft 3'7,348 

fl^iiiP ^7 

/]“ ^V-3 — 5 . 

tj^ 


sbo 


L A D D 19 , 19 . 36 , 63,74 

T ^ 44 38 , 12 . 8 , 13 S-, 
H7, 170 , |8?. 2.57, 
2.70 , 170 , 170, 2 8 6, 

28t,2^6 ,35? 35-6, 

ns, s-94, s-94, 607, 

b 2-0. 

121U-11 “7 

u I)HA ! 1 PT s6 -H.»37.u+ 

l [j^^il 

• | 0 3 ' l '° 

l)SLVTD> ? 64. 

u 3 b. ST), e.65. 

neack* *’- 6 »- 86 

79>"7/i46 
ISH-.l??. 267,268, 29? 
to-~^V II . 6 7 ,71,101 

■ 1)SVt?F»5 “7 

’•‘7 

P”© y Jci Viy; 


2 . &? 


m* X 3,3 4 v?s, 6 7 « 

L 4 A^. <=» a . t<rvo«.s I3 ; 

lo, t» ; 31, 31, 37 , 4 *., J 01 

L [)^V S 7 ' l3 7^4 

n i^i 84,86,87, r 14 

1 4 ^ Sr 14 ^, 192 , 0 - 12,37 

5 “A 

•l)“fcl 151 ’ 1 r 9- 

• 1) Sh ft IIIII 1 

lI) s^.s-^ 

L im « 

£) ft >43 

iir°> > 5-9 

• I| ft ^///lH 304 
[) ft JTJ c^*wo.7° 

• ji ^ ftp — S 4 

’ J \ ^ * 1 1 ^. 137 , IT 4 

%/////*<>* 

A "a oc P 3 T4- 

ufl~ 


941 


. 1X3 

Ctfv^A.’iO 

1,4,?, 13, 1 7 , 
18,19, fc I, S S‘ 
89, ) 12 , (9 S', 2 o 1,201 , 
2-3S, 2 . 88 , 371 , 372 ’ 
392 , 39 s-, 3? o’. 


lK 


RCS£.I|j& 2ST6 
L BSL ^ 99 
J\SI sJM ^5f 6 3 
31.2C > a, 4 
j^SEL 0 2 - 38 
jce: pt *63 
SI >|P 210 

T>^jm =7> 

nft vw «j v -e. -e. s 4 . t~A 9 , 


3?& 
^~o_ 31 


P^TsIiT 97 

fl ft 

i) M 2 - 7 0 
1 }^^ 6 

jj ~ 497 


Q css I » 5 " 4 4 


4-° 


P [} &2 ~ 

I] £» TT. /] l 4 * 

srt 

i) ^ A Tf, '77 

i gin 14 

■ 1) % l\ '44 

f \ % ^ ,ri 

L q ^ Q *97 
u q r=)> ?» 446 

l£! 7 ) 

-=- SI 1 R ““‘ 8 

U |J -=- t=> ? Ztt 


9 




2.rs 


. . 80 

l > 74,106 

^ 1 Cjg^-*— 3 4 - 

• ■=» ?X, X39 
LJ U U 89 

A 

—Dj^^I S6 

Hli ^ 504 
tzi VV ^43 

• -^ 613 

u ^j~ o 6 o, fa 11 
^ 'Tft 74 

&/////// L0& 

5 ^- 

1- '43 16 7.175* 

>7 6 , X 0 9 , 2. 6 9, 344. 

3 S-&, 43?, S -81 

fT£ a • lir 
>- "— 52 - 

— /|“ 676 




w 79 

XJO 
3 X 6 


-70 

80 

■^- a^>^- P 34 -E 

T 

^ SX 8 ? 

^-^n ?47 
x ^ X ^> r 
Sfc 73 
> ' 3 ? 

j 

ijt ^ H////// 26 s 

fT-P 

K 85 

Jf T )2 P li8 

fT 82 - 

8A 

&4 

4 ^: 36 

tzi 4 90 

tj ^ IS -4 
2- fc 9 

74 , 10 6 

flifkfj 2» 7 

— W//ffl — 'a 

— 1 "V\£ p so 


A 

A 




2.^2 

Pt XXVl'l 


M 

HH ^9 0 

tj 1] \\ ^1 5-64 ■ T?6 

S i| tN> 76 

u 73>rj' 2- b 9 

L /^ I*? P IT 86 - "4,286 191 

1\> 'll 

/ftP ,r ^ 

> 

ifc ? I 

'^,'^'0. 0 XXr 

'49 

? 2.8 6 
Hsfr , " c 

P vv 74 
^ 4 1 ^ III III 2-79 

w*M.r.p 









xxx 


NDEX OF NAMES 


4P r '7 

utP— 7? 

"4- V‘^p. 

■ f rS — 33 

l"!* P 7 T^ £-**-*■-» 6 &, S 6 
tV^« 5^0,5-61 

TP—^ lsr 

Tf 5- ^ 

n-S“ 3l ' 7t - ii ’'°l 

L | | ^2 Vn t o 4-, ) o r, loo, 

149 , US ,17°, '7 1 - 
2.4 6, 7-8 2 

Tps^ m* 
utPS f 116 
Tfl^W> **.*7 
-fPSi- 1 ) ' 4 ' 

4PJU1 n,>^,i3 7l m 

n» 

TP«=:PTsi£ 86,87 
tP^s* Hlill/i 608 
V fiFT ? «.9‘ 

ET 

^ #// 


85 



i-Tf^ 4-14 
I - 

J 

z v ^ 

xjijj/] 6 3 
J {| }82- . 6a ( 

"J V ?» 

J ^ x__ ?S 8 

j>VV |4z - 
J>^ lzo 

»*S 


14-2- 


JJ~> ^ 2 - 

hJ ^ ” 

□ 

XTM~ . 

' /~$ U-uj-^lS, 41 

^m////i cAi ^' s] 

XV- —38 

T X c ^ wl ‘ a7_ 

?• 

R £) V c^/r,7? 

□ ^ f) 7-9 0 
1 -a^>I)/) & i6 

. □ ^> l| Q « 2.53 

• D ^> -=>■ ^ ^ 2.9 3 (va.r.33) 

• n X VSl 3r ^ 

l □ D 1) 73 

1- □ a I] Ij 33 

□ _ t-q^ 35-7 

J=L ua=j ~ 476 
l JL t] ^ -61 

6 ?r 

° £XC 74 104 

j -a^a/x ' ' ; 

□ ? 

□ <3» 

Q _ t=y^^s r 
2. fl S3 

JL q V 147 
S ^ S6 
” I> 83 

l C~3 <=* n- S' 

<^> T 7 s ” 

l a ^ ^ 33 

Vo-/. O^^-Ij^ 2-?3 

u a ~qZ)~ 39 , 8 ? jo^o. 
u o ~> i?' 7^ 

2 1 ‘> r - 

MTJ 


5“v3i if »*•* 
“€,<# —7' 

jim ^ 

*“ Sv—' 11 10 

”>2JT 7° 

s x-X'U / CJ '~*' 


ffir ts 5~4- 3 

■E>i)i| 30 

ca ? 7? 

•C3 $ 2 -4 ^ 

& ^7 
ea 




88 


ca 

.£±1 


L I 171 7 , >?, S7, “4. 
L -J -I 3 7-H \ j X 6 ?, 2 - 6 S, 

Z6S , 7-8,1 , bo I 

JJ fo '”*• 

■•JJV li ' s8 

J Jo ^1 7^ 


2.7 o 
<3 6 . 


.^^^> 1 ) j- 4 ? 


7.6"7 , 'T- & ^ ^ ^ 

> sr ' 15 7,f 4 J ,? 

I SI ■-«■ 

K ->3 

HWTP bos’ 

^99 

^5=»>- 4 =>^A,zs 7 

^^>^+—^>464,465 
-——^jr^a 1 s', 17,37, «^i 

95 , 7 6 , I 01 -, U 7t ,3l ( 

(36, '4' , 188 , 194 , 175 ; 
zoo, Z 07 , za, ZZ 7 , 345 ; 
3i~7, 360 , 376 , 384,390 
4 zz, 441 , 470 , 599 , 600 , 

ix* 

^98 

'41 

^'N £— i > 113 

~~v JJ A_ 1 

42 ' ? 

34 1 

* -9 c-?ns) . ■ ■ ■' 

9° ? ^^"° 

l ^ -=»l^ irz,iszz3s,r8‘ 

‘9 ° 

u ^-=.[][| 7v,79. 83,151, 

Z3I, 363. 36 r, 367,368, 

869,395472-. c.76,96,97 

^^>#7 2 - so 

^ ’ 2 -42- 
1 ■ •?. 77. 131, 
1^1 , 24 5"9 , I 6 . 


Wl*— ^-^4 

2-7? 

> xa - 

— 8 

^ ffl V 4 

W ^ 

145, 14-3 

4 03 

•\^Pxx in 
L \s. ^ 143 
Vfoi l 7 5 ', ' 7 6 

«-V=> “ 2- 8 6 

^ ? 1 4-S 

(^^|^? 4 S? 

<268 

[f)P XXI -1 

HiM- ?0 

)fiP> c4 ~ j - 9 f 
[ftpzl' cfc> >x ' -1 

mn 7 ° ’ 

71 , 24 s-, ^-v^S 

3 '9 

-V t ~ c< ^ 9 

-=> -=» I • 2.7 O 

AWXA 

~ v ~Ij I o 8 

ls ' 1 - 

J) ^^>20 ?! 

iTT^— 4 s- 

r: M? 

a 0-V '9 

> fl 148 
C | -s- I T3g 

^ 45-1 '49 ] 
w~ 14-9 | 

cJU 3 74 

c>rr:p^ m 

»>P7H7‘ 

zb 9 

-jj- o. i> -4 

7?^- 

•9- 33 7 

TTq ^ (4^ 6)r 


2 / 

A<w\ 


■* -= 
AA^V 


>^479 

! S 6 

’ ^ 

- ©I ^bSi 

\ 76 
x 7 0 

- ^ X- s 4 

' P'—^ 

r- U I ' ' | 6 O 

3 5D 


i 


W1 


3 S3 


15V 


2 - 4 -r 


— 5T>o , 57>\ 

V 2.8 6 


1^1 I) 

r^=rO ?2 *-i,7? 

rs=n ^ 79,79,79.7? 

t4s- 

STWiH.% zt 7 

119 

J ? lj vyo 

l)'X l ^1 ^4 

t ^ — 8 7 

J ^ n 660 

tM x6 9 
U> 28 ‘ 

•- i x 1 z ^ 1 

i* i > 83 

°7 

• lEi —73 

J TT> c—b 
U J [ , 

t'lfn 7.69 

• l —^ ‘ 4 

*- i t ^ 

x i ^3 >' s 

480 

l ?7,' 3 4 

iv 7+ 

*4 ^ 3r6 


W.M.r P. 



















2*3. 


1 4 33 

'43 

I J\ ^ 2.'4 

P (t 7 

J ? ' 3 4 

> ls ^ 

c<svot_ & 3 

'TvO- x 9 7 - 

Tb- P 

87, 38 , 83 , Si , 8 J 
"4, 114,137, /49, 148 

TUWPB ^ 8 

fl Q ~ '*7 

^ Jj a jj X6g, 26&,7-68 

1 <=* 363, 367 268,369 

C^~*- &' 

L O ^ 77,97, III, 134,134- 

L 4°J p/) 7-91 



J 2 -4 3 - 
S ? 79 

O - *1 **9(M*S 


N D EX OF NAMES 

J> 55-4 

HPT 74 , 10 <> 

PT «< 

<0 P ° I o o 
<=> 1 SI 

S > 444 

0 JsO>=x)) 


O t±a^ [\ j c^~°-i 7, 98 I) <^w4 1,2.1 

o^i)/|- ^39 L ^,,y **,.,b 


L O I 




O C3 


O *CV 


> " 

"i IT v 

\ ^44 
xz *- 

48 

L ‘"A P°$ 90 91 

_ L “\ *"“\ 2-7 £> 

'vV*/S\ / 

>• |fX~(») 


n> 7 

ra !) 77 ^ 148 
& l 4 5 " 

n 7 4 >' ° 6 


H=* 

X=M 


. ? Ill 


II 


=-4 

'+9 


1 ft) c 
12 « 

1 4 * 

fcj - 6 

•-g/| 4*4- 

"S\'K^ ri ? 

IV C-iJV-t. 7 J 
~— 3 ^ 


0 231, 234 

°|ft D P 6 74 - 
ifiP 334 

O I (tl^ 1 4 4 

»«» 

o t 64- 0 
tTi ° J ^39 , 6,40 

°\ J $1 cfe a x- ‘ 6 
O t xxo 

O ££ U 3.3,7s’, Z«J3 
O ^ ,‘ 3x 

0 5) 4 3 ° 

3Sr 

L 0 P HjD ^ 1 ? 8 , l:r 2,269,270 

- CoPA ^ 1-9- XtX 
oP^s^-'T • lii 
°P^5»»*SMM ,3 7 

0 P zf's PT i| j fc .7 6 . |3S 

S ° 5fc»^ P <=> |x'I]H ^ 4 

IST 

,<=>-'^=>\\ ?IS 1 

^ s~4- 
i 494 


- 1 

£23 


^ 57 

77 

— I 1 J X4,xS6 

SfsT x 9 5 

2> (|^Y S3, S'4 160, 
~~ I J 473, X 69 , S34- 

— PI 1 29 

Sv pPT 89 , 9 x, 137 , 
141 , 14 s- , 2 . 69 , 3 - 34 , 
5T3 , 5T-4-. 


■--S^/ '*) A xx, - ,fc ' 

Ti>^/ 1 1 or^-.48 

in 

^ 2. S3 

ra>^-ss 

fm ~ T xxi 

reurr/)-- i?x 


r: 


^ 1 » * 

L^I7 ^ — 
L 


'k 5 


ra. 


89 


^ v ? x * r 

WKPg 479 

U/' ^ o 3 7 

X63 

tf- T X 17 

!«>» 


6 ^ S7 

^ xS4 

~T^ 2 - 6 ^ > 

? 

?x,9x 

XS8 

■ v ~rr~ p 3T, 4x ; c^q\ 
S~6 o 

^JT’KV: 
r c^~<. n 

^aZjl) 


I 1 ^4- 
/5-^ 


a iT 
§. #/ 
iQL 


,a\\ 


q- 


^ 9? 
&VP- 99 

1 2-9 7 _ 


X7 X 
-v-e- 6>X- 
:/j 2 - 6 S 
l\pS7- 

,'3 6 

;31 x^4 


^^TT// i8r 

O v go, 28 , SJ, 90, I 4 J" 

A ^ X4 S*, X 6 7 , X 6 8 

■ 8? A 72, 96,87,57 L 
A^a. 41 114 , U 4 , X 9 X 

$ S' xnx ? 24 s 


86 , 57 , 114 

- <L<rvoa— 3 3» 

Tv ^77 

L x9x,z 9 r?,S^3 

X>U • S' XXVIII. 

^ I JO 

i66 

3o - 3r 

r-8l]^ c-wc-3 

' c * > »i. 

in 

■2* 1 ? 1 rx 

9 7^ 

•S’ ^ \ X 9 0 
■^'TrJT XS 7 

^ i^o/| 5 s ' 01 

6ss 

p ^ 5-41 

L j 2-58 


¥* 

‘S’ 


XXXI 

‘"V s? 


□ 

□ 

■ V, 3^3 

^ B* D ^7 


l3> 7 


-ST> 


VA\- 
V 


8fe 




TP^ 


L © 
L © 


xi, 13 , 39 ,44 

_T xi 

f X3 

^74 

*9- l39 - 

«9 

^ F—„ ^ 14 9 

o - 17 , 36, - 2 - 04 ,“4,Z-S9 

<=■ a 361 , 390 , 43040^41 

1 /j 186 (s«o{(. 2 S) 

D ^ ^ 

a A77 

^ 77 1 ? 74 , I 0 4 

a ^ -9- 44X- 

? 74, 10k, /s~4 
a ^ : 314 

■= 2 = p 300 
1 in 

"V 33 7 

PT ^7 

V ixi,»rx 

7 r 


=-/^« 

© ® 7^ s o 

lC 5 ^631 

L <5 37=^= 3IS.335-, 784? 

<5>- 83- 

% rr 449 

^ 813 

l^o 4r 

L JL ,2 - r 

iL x 9' 


> 


- a 


>flP 


8 r 

33 6 

6 ^> 

® ^ ? X 3 I 


W? X3 


Ito 


y36 


'4*=»5; 


fPP‘ 

8 6 


• 5-36 


> J 79 

ST^c-^4?- 
f 5-14 


T~ l8 ^ 

347 


11 

«-= 


1 4 s" 

-z=^_ 7 1 
XI3 131 


I- 




17 9, ISO, 341 
3 S8,' 399, 408,4 37, 

443,4ST>,4ni ,489 

P 486 
'T Q ’• /^4 


^ Q 

© I Jj, 


® 


W. m . r. 3>. 

















XXXI! 


NDEX OF NAMES" 



|XO- 


i-7 ° 

Td 2.8 4 
l 5-^7 

- v ,, . 7 J l-lolzitS^Jz' 

L isi 2.95; JJ 7 . 3 S 3 

• 4-87 

? ' 

'4' 


l-2-o, 2-7 3 

id > 2-^5,493 

id - 

~^\y//A 3 ? fc 
PJ 

~S~ 74,106 

P2fc»I)^- 2 "4 
P^#t 77 

4^ U# 

1 ^ JJ A z< ?2- 
zi ° ■ ori 6 o 
7*7 77 }<=* \ 74 , i o 6 

7*7 zd P vv II r 

^ zS 

P^>J ^>3 

n~J 5-3, ^,5Tt, 8 x 
* ^ 9 o , 99 , 12 -o, /z3 

11-3, I49,2-6S,S-8I 

I 

i J so 

L Pdj A 9X2.ii,^6 7 ,2-6g 
ra. 

p~j Ilf) 74- , lot 

i J V 8 * 

Pdl 

I V, U J'. 9 *-. t4 -i, '74 
4 :JJjJ 3-8 6 , 2 - 36 . 

■J e O r > ^9 

n St, S'), H4-, 

■| -J • 2.99, 4 54,5-38 

P -f w Hi I ri - 

2S7 

PdT^-il 

i_P^j'oa~n Sx,X^7 

^P ~j t> 4 "> 

•pd'- c> I r2-,Z68,X8X 

|!4 

24 ^ 4 , 51 , 74 - 
10 4 , 13 - 0 , 137.1 4 r 
149, 131, I S"9 , 173 

L i ^ '" 

'Pd^ z 9- 

p— 86 

LpJ> 87 . "4' M + ’ l82_ 

*-PT^> 183 
P£> $ ^ 


-TitC. “ ' ^ ' , 3 3r 

• 1 dT 2-67 

99 

• Td^^frf 97,97 

<=> 110 

L p <=> ^ Z67 

L Its-, us 

_i 1—1 Ctr^- I 04 

p I] ^ 144 
^P^J> 89 

—g- 111 

p i 1 A > f( 1 9 

PdT A ^ 7S- 
Tit x68 

—*-**- rx 647 
dr u u 89 

p 'tf'#/ 45 ^ 
P^H '33 

I XX-1 

csn J T 2 - 1 - 
E3L.JT># 2 -7° 
TP 




lol 


■v^'5 ^ 


89 , I3Z 


fl ?/& * 

l'-^* Si 


ss y4t 

A a ^ / l’/o^ 5-4 

t=ap a 0-4 

AWN 

3 Vfch 3-3 

LU 

t « A** 2-8 

A 

L L_1 3 ST*. 

*-L)Q~l) ?» 

U> a< ? 6 

c^-63 

A~%> 01 CaSW^2-| 

djjf %, 1)1) /X I3-T- 

u ^yy-W// 2 - 9 ° 

v°' z 7° 

V> ^3 

xj 1)1) 374 


A 3» 

1 SX 

A ^ i 

in 


X 8 6 

]] Z) ox' 

x 41 

jqA 

337- 

| AA4 

J ^ 

>7. 


■l)-^ $'KJR?2-4S- 


\ 


I'j'- S7,;'4 


• ^ P iS X33 7 

: t\ /////// z 4, x 4 

? %^///- il ) 8 

‘ rtltid" 3>9 

tl /60 

: > 2 . 7 o 470,353 

o- r 10,1.9,46,94, 

-it' 5 ' 1 111 , 119,140 

?7^> X SI 

ss 

D 2- s 6 


• 92 - 

■>r ? 6? -96 

— ? 4^ 

UV^ 73 

— an in 

^o^-S 9 

• -^r t 6^-^ 3s 

-t 1 L. £ *— . 


^ 45 - 

] I] 76 

} ^ ir 87, 114 

MQ- x 9 2- 

1X4,3 35 

" 34 ? 

y *>■ 1 74 , 101 

I fc 

•**} 


=4- \ 


-^-A^2. c ^- j ¥ 

19.19 

-#/-6\l 

63S 

? I ^ 2-9 X 
"1> 90 

1 ) - s '7 

^ 2-9,42-, ^ 94; 

9s - , iixi 116, 1x7, 

140, 147, 197 

in T- 86 , 87 , 37 . 
ID 114,114 

IIS 

617 

i I) C^x IOS 

i um. 84 



\J///(M 3S 7 

A / 

iilh A ^9° 

Fo V Kt Vxtj S &-$-£— § . 9 - 

M F. P 


























6176 L OSOOO 21.01. I- 


AjBjqn Jssds-^JEuimss |B3i6o|osqx uowuuj 


Z88T '1<W6a ui uosbss \/ 

OllOd 6t?d8V £iia